Abstract

We describe an algorithm based on shrinkage in the curvelet domain to attenuate speckles in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The algorithm exploits the curvelet transform’s sparse representation of edge discontinuities that are common in OCT images and its ability to map signals and noise into different areas in the curvelet domain. The speckle attenuation is controlled by a single parameter that determines the threshold in the curvelet domain. Applying the algorithm to OCT images shows significant improvement of image quality.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (2)

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, Opt. Express 16, 12313 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candes, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Bilenca, A.

Bizheva, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Bovik, A. C.

H. Choi, T. E. Milner, and A. C. Bovik, in Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2003).
[PubMed]

Candes, E. J.

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candes, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Candès, E. J.

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Candès and D. L. Donoho, in Curves and Surface Fitting, C.Rabut, A.Cohen, and L.L.Schumaker, eds. (Vanderbilt U. Press, 2000).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

H. Choi, T. E. Milner, and A. C. Bovik, in Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2003).
[PubMed]

Demanet, L.

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

Donoho, D. L.

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candes, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Candès and D. L. Donoho, in Curves and Surface Fitting, C.Rabut, A.Cohen, and L.L.Schumaker, eds. (Vanderbilt U. Press, 2000).

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 29, 2878 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargesha, M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, M. W.

Johnstone, I. M.

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kuppermann, B. D.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, R. M.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallat, S.

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic, 1998).

Marks, D. L.

Milner, T. E.

H. Choi, T. E. Milner, and A. C. Bovik, in Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2003).
[PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puvanathasan, P.

Ralston, T. S.

Rao, B.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starck, J. -L.

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candes, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Wilson, D. L.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, L. C.

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J.-L. Starck, E. J. Candes, and D. L. Donoho, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11, 670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Stat. Assoc. (1)

D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 90, 1200 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

B. Rao, L. Yu, H. K. Chiang, L. C. Zacharias, R. M. Kurtz, B. D. Kuppermann, and Z. Chen, J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 040505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Multiscale Model. Simul. (1)

E. J. Candès, L. Demanet, D. L. Donoho, and L. Ying, Multiscale Model. Simul. 5, 861 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 1427 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. H. Xiang, L. Zhou, and J. M. Schmitt, Proc. SPIE 3196, 79 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing (Academic, 1998).

H. Choi, T. E. Milner, and A. C. Bovik, in Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2003).
[PubMed]

E. J. Candès and D. L. Donoho, in Curves and Surface Fitting, C.Rabut, A.Cohen, and L.L.Schumaker, eds. (Vanderbilt U. Press, 2000).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energies of the curvelet and wavelet coefficients of the OCT image shown in Fig. 2a. The coefficients are sorted in descending order of energy from left to right. Curvelets provide a sparser representation of the image, as the signal energy is concentrated in fewer curvelet coefficients than wavelet coefficients.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fourier domain OCT images of the optical nerve head (a) before and (b) after curvelet despeckling. For direct comparison, the images are shown on the same color scale. The SNR, CNR, and ENL are all increased, with a high similarity between the images before and after denoising, as detailed in Table 1. The two white arrows in (b) indicate the places where features hidden in the original image are more obvious in the denoised image. (c) shows the cross section signal along the white dashed lines in (a) and (b), and they are vertically offset for clarity. The edge sharpness of the original image is well preserved in the denoising process, as can be seen in (c). The curvelet transform parameters are: the number of scales is 3 and the number of orientations at the second coarsest scale is 16. A universal threshold is used for all directions, and the value of k is 0.7.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Image Quality Metrics

Metrics