Abstract

We present both theoretical and experimental results of an ultracompact waveguide coupler that is capable of highly efficient coupling of light from strip waveguides to slot waveguides, and vice versa. By optimizing the geometrical parameters, it is possible to achieve extremely low-loss coupling. A coupling efficiency of 97% has been obtained experimentally while keeping the overall size down to the range below 10μm. Further analysis shows that the proposed coupler has relatively high tolerance to fabrication errors and is wavelength insensitive.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 684 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1626 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, in Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2005), p. 607.
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casquel, R.

Daele, P. V.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

L. Wosinski, L. Liu, M. Dainese, and D. Dai, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO 2007 (2007).

Dainese, M.

L. Wosinski, L. Liu, M. Dainese, and D. Dai, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO 2007 (2007).

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N.-N.

Fujisawa, T.

González-Pedro, V.

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

Holgado, M.

Kimerling, L. C.

Koshiba, M.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

L. Wosinski, L. Liu, M. Dainese, and D. Dai, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO 2007 (2007).

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maquieira, A.

Mesel, K. D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Sánchez, B.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Sun, R.

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

L. Wosinski, L. Liu, M. Dainese, and D. Dai, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO 2007 (2007).

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, in Proceedings of the 2005 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2005), p. 607.
[CrossRef]

L. Wosinski, L. Liu, M. Dainese, and D. Dai, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO 2007 (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the coupler. Insert, fundamental TE-polarized modes of strip and slot waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electrical field evolution between strip and slot waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical (solid curve) and experimental (squares) results for coupling efficiency with different taper lengths at λ = 1475 nm . Inset, (a) SEM top view of the fabricated coupler and (b) cross section of the slot waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated coupling efficiency for different tip widths when L taper = 8 μ m . Inset, schematic configuration of the tip width of a strip taper.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical and experimental (inset) results of the wavelength dependence of the optimized coupler.

Equations (1)

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γ = 10 × log 10 ( P out P in ) 2 ,

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