Abstract

We report subwavelength localization of electromagnetic fields within cavities based on metamaterials. Cavity resonances are observed in the transmission spectrum of a split-ring resonator and composite metamaterials cavity structures. These cavity resonances are shown to exhibit high-quality factors. Since the unit cells of metamaterials are much smaller than the operation wavelength, subwavelength localization is possible within these metamaterial cavity structures. In the present Letter, we show that the electromagnetic field is localized into a region of λ8, where λ is the cavity resonance wavelength.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, and H. Caglayan, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 31, 814 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. Belyantsev and A. B. Kozyrev, Tech. Phys. 47, 1477 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).
  10. M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 1, 89 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, M. Loncar, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 16, 11132 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 2007).

2008

2007

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 1, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, and H. Caglayan, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 31, 814 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. M. Belyantsev and A. B. Kozyrev, Tech. Phys. 47, 1477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alija, A. R.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 1, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belyantsev, A. M.

A. M. Belyantsev and A. B. Kozyrev, Tech. Phys. 47, 1477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. M.

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bulu, I.

Caglayan, H.

Chen, Y. H.

Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, J. W.

Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dotor, M. L.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golmayo, D.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gourley, P. L.

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, B. E.

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozyrev, A. B.

A. M. Belyantsev and A. B. Kozyrev, Tech. Phys. 47, 1477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K.-Y.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

Martínez, L. J.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, M. Loncar, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Express 16, 11132 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, and H. Caglayan, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 1, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, Opt. Lett. 31, 814 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patrini, M.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Postigo, P. A.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reif, R.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Dehesa, J.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vawter, G. A.

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viktorovitch, P.

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villenevue, P. R.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Z.

Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 2007).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. R. Villenevue, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, K.-Y. Lim, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, and R. Reif, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Gourley, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 687 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Chen, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag.

K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, IEE Proc. Microwaves, Antennas Propag. 1, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 3, 75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Postigo, A. R. Alija, L. J. Martínez, M. L. Dotor, D. Golmayo, J. Sánchez-Dehesa, C. Seassal, P. Viktorovitch, M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Patrini, and L. C. Andreani, Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 5, 79 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2140 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B

E. Ozbay, I. Bulu, and H. Caglayan, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tech. Phys.

A. M. Belyantsev and A. B. Kozyrev, Tech. Phys. 47, 1477 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford U. Press, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Unit cell of the SRR structure: a = 4.95 mm , b = 0.25 mm . (b) Unit cell of the CMM structure: c = 1.6 mm . (c) Cavity structure: d = 5.4 mm , e = 1 mm . The unit cells of metamaterials are much smaller than the operating wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The SRR structure has a bandgap between 5 and 7 GHz . However, the CRR structure transmits EM waves (black curve). Hence, the SRR structure exhibits μ < 0 medium at these frequencies. (b) The CMM structure transmits EM waves, because it has μ < 0 and ϵ < 0 at this range.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A cavity structure is introduced by replacing the center unit cell with a positive-index medium. The cavity resonance is observed at 6.7 GHz ( 44.7 mm ) and 7.5 GHz ( 40 mm ) by the (a) SRR cavity structure and (b) the CMM cavity structure, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The calculated electric field is highly localized at the cavity region for (a) SRR cavity and (b) CMM cavity structures. Hence, the field at the cavity resonance is enhanced at the subwavelength ( λ 8 ) cavity region. (Red indicates the maximum, and blue indicates the minimum.)

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