Abstract

We have developed a tomographic diffractive microscope, equipped with a fluorescence confocal scanner. We measure experimentally the lateral resolution using an edge method and by comparing tomographic images of the same samples with wide-field and laser scanning confocal microscopy images; a scanning electron microscope image serves as a reference. The experimental resolution is shown to be to about 130nm, or λ(3.5NA). This instrument also permits one to measure 3D, complex index of refraction distributions, a quantity that is not accessible to conventional microscopes, and we show how this feature may be used to observe KCl crystals, absorption of which is very weak.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gorski and W. Osten, Opt. Lett. 32, 1977 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

2002

V. Lauer, J. Microsc. 205, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1985

1984

M. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 32, 860 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. M. Bentzen, Med. Phys. 10, 579 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

1976

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 329 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

1970

R. Dandliker and K. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 1, 323 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1948

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H.

Becker, H.

Belkebir, K.

A. Sentenac, P. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bentzen, S. M.

S. M. Bentzen, Med. Phys. 10, 579 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Carter, W. H.

Charrière, F.

Chaumet, P.

A. Sentenac, P. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Dandliker, R.

R. Dandliker and K. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 1, 323 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debailleul, M.

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Devaney, A. J.

Emery, Y.

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georges, V.

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giovaninni, H.

O. Haeberlé, A. Santenac, and H. Giovaninni, in Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy (Formatex, 2007), Vol. II, p. 956.

Gorski, W.

Haeberlé, O.

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Haeberlé, A. Santenac, and H. Giovaninni, in Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy (Formatex, 2007), Vol. II, p. 956.

Ho, P.-C.

Kak, A. C.

M. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 32, 860 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).

Kuehn, J.

Larsen, L. E.

M. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 32, 860 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, V.

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Lauer, J. Microsc. 205, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 329 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Malecki, M. H.

Marian, A.

Marquet, P.

Montfort, F.

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osten, W.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Rappaz, B.

Santenac, A.

O. Haeberlé, A. Santenac, and H. Giovaninni, in Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy (Formatex, 2007), Vol. II, p. 956.

Schatzberg, A.

Sentenac, A.

A. Sentenac, P. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simon, B.

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slaney, M.

M. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 32, 860 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).

Streibel, N.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

Weiss, K.

R. Dandliker and K. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 1, 323 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wiltschko, E.

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys.

B. Simon, M. Debailleul, V. Georges, V. Lauer, and O. Haeberlé, Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 44, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

M. Slaney, A. C. Kak, and L. E. Larsen, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 32, 860 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

V. Lauer, J. Microsc. 205, 165 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

H. H. Li, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, 329 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Debailleul, B. Simon, V. Georges, O. Haeberlé, and V. Lauer, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

S. M. Bentzen, Med. Phys. 10, 579 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Nat. Methods 4, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. Wolf, Opt. Commun. 1, 153 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker and K. Weiss, Opt. Commun. 1, 323 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Sentenac, P. Chaumet, and K. Belkebir, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

O. Haeberlé, A. Santenac, and H. Giovaninni, in Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microscopy (Formatex, 2007), Vol. II, p. 956.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, 1988).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: scheme of our tomographic diffractive microscope (BS, beam splitter; OF, optical fiber; RC, recombination cube). Scanning confocal microscopy has not been representated. Bottom, frequency support for tomographic diffractive microscopy (in gray) and holographic microscopy (black curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron (SEM), wide-field (WFM), tomographic (TDM), and confocal fluorescence (LSCM) images of a lacey carbon membrane. Bottom, magnified view of the square region depicted on the SEM image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cumulative experimental edge profile data points and estimate edges profiles in LSCM (crosses and dashed curve) and TDM (circles and solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top: longitudinal ( x z ) views of a pollen grain. Left: holographic; center: tomographic; and right: confocal microscopies. Bottom: KCl crystals. Left: index images. Right: absorption images.

Equations (1)

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A ( k d ) n ̃ δ ( k d k i ) ,

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