Abstract

An optical refractometer based on a birefringent (Hi-Bi) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in a new H-shaped fiber structure is proposed. This structure is formed by opening the two holes of a side-hole fiber using chemical etching. When the Hi-Bi FBG is immersed in different liquids, different responses of the slow and fast wavelengths are obtained. The refractometer is also capable of simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahlfeld, H.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, W.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dewynter-Marty, V.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edwall, G.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Frazao, O.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frigna, Y.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giodano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huy, M. C. P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayteevarunyoo, T.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pagnoux, D.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, D. A.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahlgren, B.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sang, X.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. L.

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, R.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeld, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giodano, IEEE Sens. J. 5, 1288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, Y. Frigna, V. Dewynter-Marty, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-M. Blondy, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, and B. Dussardier, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 992 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

D. A. Pereira, O. Frazao, and J. L. Santos, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 43, 299 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

X. Sang, C. Yu, T. Mayteevarunyoo, K. Wang, Q. Zhang, and P. L. Chu, Sens. Actuators B 120, 754 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the FBG refractometer based on an H-shaped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectral response of the Hi-Bi FBG before and after chemical etching, (b) FBG spectrum when the sensing head was surrounded by air and water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence with the liquid refractive index of (a) wavelength of the two resonances of the birefringent FBG and (b) resonance wavelength difference and grating birefringence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence with temperature of (a) wavelength of the two resonances of the birefringent FBG and (b) resonance wavelength difference and grating birefringence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensor output as determined by Eq. (2) for liquid refractive index change at constant temperature and temperature change at constant refractive index.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Birefringence of the Side-Hole and H-Shaped Fibers

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ Δ T Δ n ] = 1 K ( T ) f K ( n ) s K ( n ) f K ( T ) s [ K ( n ) s K ( n ) f K ( T ) s K ( T ) f ] [ Δ λ f Δ λ s ] .
[ Δ T Δ n ] = 1 0.7 × 10 3 [ 0.14 0 , 2 10.97 10.67 ] [ Δ λ f Δ λ s ] .

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