Abstract

A ZEMAX model was constructed to simulate a clinical trial of intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on a clinically oriented Monte Carlo ensemble analysis using postoperative ocular parameters. The purpose of this model is to test the feasibility of streamlining and optimizing both the design process and the clinical testing of IOLs. This optical ensemble analysis (OEA) is also validated. Simulated pseudophakic eyes were generated by using the tolerancing and programming features of ZEMAX optical design software. OEA methodology was verified by demonstrating that the results of clinical performance simulations were consistent with previously published clinical performance data using the same types of IOLs. From these results we conclude that the OEA method can objectively simulate the potential clinical trial performance of IOLs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008

2007

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 91, 1225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, Appl. Opt. 46, 6595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Beiko, W. Haigis, and A. Steinmueller, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Atchison and G. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. A. Piers, N. E. Norrby, and U. Mester, Opt. Lett. 29, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kennis, M. Huygens, and F. Callebaut, Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 294, 49 (2004).

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

C. K. Jung, S. K. Chung, and N. H. Baek, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 26, 582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

A. Lang and V. Portney, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 19, 505 (1993).

1988

G. Walsh and W. N. Charman, Vision Res. 28, 659 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

W. S. Stark, Curr. Eye Res. 6, 631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1978

M. A. Mainster, Surv. Ophthalmol. 23, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

G. Verriest, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 13, 314 (1974).
[PubMed]

1965

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Altmann, G. E.

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

Baek, N. H.

C. K. Jung, S. K. Chung, and N. H. Baek, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 26, 582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beiko, G. H.

G. H. Beiko, W. Haigis, and A. Steinmueller, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellucci, R.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bescos, J.

Brennan, N.

Buratto, L.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, F.

H. Kennis, M. Huygens, and F. Callebaut, Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 294, 49 (2004).

Campbell, C.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Charman, W. N.

G. Walsh and W. N. Charman, Vision Res. 28, 659 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chierego, C.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. K.

C. K. Jung, S. K. Chung, and N. H. Baek, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 26, 582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Criscuoli, A.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, E.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Dick, H. B.

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durak, A.

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fine, I. H.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, D. G.

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

Haigis, W.

G. H. Beiko, W. Haigis, and A. Steinmueller, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hara, Y.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, R. S.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Huygens, M.

H. Kennis, M. Huygens, and F. Callebaut, Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 294, 49 (2004).

Jung, C. K.

C. K. Jung, S. K. Chung, and N. H. Baek, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 26, 582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaynak, S.

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kennis, H.

H. Kennis, M. Huygens, and F. Callebaut, Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 294, 49 (2004).

Kocak, N.

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, D. D.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, M.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koranyi, G.

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Krummenauer, F.

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, S. S.

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lang, A.

A. Lang and V. Portney, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 19, 505 (1993).

Liou, H.-L.

Mainster, M. A.

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 91, 1225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, Surv. Ophthalmol. 23, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mester, U.

Moretti, G.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morselli, S.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nathoo, A.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

Nichamin, L. D.

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norrby, N. E.

P. A. Piers, N. E. Norrby, and U. Mester, Opt. Lett. 29, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Norrby, S.

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, Appl. Opt. 46, 6595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oner, H. F.

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Packer, M.

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pepose, J. S.

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, N.

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piers, P.

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, Appl. Opt. 46, 6595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piers, P. A.

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. A. Piers, N. E. Norrby, and U. Mester, Opt. Lett. 29, 733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Portney, V.

A. Lang and V. Portney, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 19, 505 (1993).

Santamaria, J.

Schwenn, O.

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

Scialdone, A.

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G.

Stark, W. S.

W. S. Stark, Curr. Eye Res. 6, 631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmueller, A.

G. H. Beiko, W. Haigis, and A. Steinmueller, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugie, Y.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taketani, F.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ueda, T.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Mooren, M.

S. Norrby, P. Piers, C. Campbell, and M. van der Mooren, Appl. Opt. 46, 6595 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Verriest, G.

G. Verriest, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 13, 314 (1974).
[PubMed]

Walsh, G.

G. Walsh and W. N. Charman, Vision Res. 28, 659 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

Weeber, H. A.

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

Weidler, S.

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yukawa, E.

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 91, 1225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthamol.

H. Zhao and M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 91, 1225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mainster, Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 784 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol.

H. Kennis, M. Huygens, and F. Callebaut, Bull. Soc. Belge Ophtalmol. 294, 49 (2004).

Curr. Eye Res.

W. S. Stark, Curr. Eye Res. 6, 631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg.

C. K. Jung, S. K. Chung, and N. H. Baek, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 26, 582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Lang and V. Portney, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 19, 505 (1993).

R. Bellucci, A. Scialdone, L. Buratto, S. Morselli, C. Chierego, A. Criscuoli, G. Moretti, and P. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 712 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Packer, I. H. Fine, R. S. Hoffman, and P. A. Piers, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 30, 986 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Durak, H. F. Oner, N. Kocak, and S. Kaynak, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 27, 227 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Taketani, E. Yukawa, T. Ueda, Y. Sugie, M. Kojima, and Y. Hara, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 1182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, E. Dai, D. D. Koch, and A. Nathoo, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Beiko, W. Haigis, and A. Steinmueller, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 33, 848 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Altmann, L. D. Nichamin, S. S. Lane, and J. S. Pepose, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 31, 574 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Physiol. (London)

F. W. Campbell and D. G. Green, J. Physiol. (London) 181, 576 (1965).

J. Refract. Surg.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S652 (2002).
[PubMed]

P. A. Piers, H. A. Weeber, P. Artal, and S. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 23, 374 (2007).
[PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, P. A. Piers, G. Koranyi, M. van der Mooren, and N. E. Norrby, J. Refract. Surg. 18, 683 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol.

G. Verriest, Mod. Probl. Ophthalmol. 13, 314 (1974).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmologe

H. B. Dick, O. Schwenn, F. Krummenauer, S. Weidler, and N. Pfeiffer, Ophthalmologe 98, 380 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Surv. Ophthalmol.

M. A. Mainster, Surv. Ophthalmol. 23, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

G. Walsh and W. N. Charman, Vision Res. 28, 659 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ZEMAX schematic of the human pseudophakic eye illustrating the present OEA used parameters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OEA generated distribution of corneal spherical aberration ( 6 mm aperture on cornea plane; sample population = 100 , average = 0.27 μ m ; 1 STDEV = 0.12 μ m ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OEA predicted MTF of the Tecnis Z9000 IOL and a spherical IOL 911A in (a) photopic light and in (b) mesopic light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OEA predicted CS (in logarithm to base 10) of the Tecnis Z9000 IOL compared to the published clinical performance in (a) photopic light and in (b) mesopic light.

Metrics