Abstract

The femtosecond laser exposure system was used to fabricate model grids for the charge-coupled device (CCD) moiré method, scanning laser moiré method, and electron moiré method for microstrain deformation measurements. The femtosecond laser exposure produces mesoscopic variation patterns on the surface. These variation patterns make the grid in the scanning laser microscope and CCD images darker and make the grid in the scanning electron microscope image brighter. The CCD moiré fringe, scanning laser moiré fringe, and electron moiré fringe consisting of bright and dark lines were generated. As a demonstration, microstrain distribution of the three-point bending tested specimen was measured.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35 (1948).
  2. S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).
  3. C. A. Sciammarela and A. J. Durelli, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 87, 55 (1961).
  4. A. J. Durelli and V. J. Parks, Moiré Analysis of Strain (Prentice Hall, 1970).
  5. S. Theocaris, Moiré Fringe in Strain Analysis (Pergamon, 1969).
  6. D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré (Springer, 1994).
  7. F. P. Chiang, Moiré Method of Strain Analysis Manual on Experimental Stress Analysis, 5th ed., J.F.Doyle and J.W.Phillips, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1982), p. 107.
  8. D. Post, Exp. Mech. 28, 329 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.
  10. S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 61, 402 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Dally and D. T. Read, Exp. Mech. 33, 270 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Asundi and K. H. Yung, Exp. Mech. 31, 236 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, T. Nakamura, and S. Kuwashima, Appl. Opt. 36, 8403 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. H. Womack, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 23, 391 (1984).
  18. H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

2007 (1)

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 61, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. W. Dally and D. T. Read, Exp. Mech. 33, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Asundi and K. H. Yung, Exp. Mech. 31, 236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Post, Exp. Mech. 28, 329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. H. Womack, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 23, 391 (1984).

1961 (1)

C. A. Sciammarela and A. J. Durelli, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 87, 55 (1961).

1960 (1)

S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).

1948 (1)

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35 (1948).

Asundi, A.

A. Asundi and K. H. Yung, Exp. Mech. 31, 236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carolan, R. A.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.

Chiang, F. P.

F. P. Chiang, Moiré Method of Strain Analysis Manual on Experimental Stress Analysis, 5th ed., J.F.Doyle and J.W.Phillips, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1982), p. 107.

Dai, F.

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dally, J. W.

D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 61, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Dally and D. T. Read, Exp. Mech. 33, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Durelli, A. J.

C. A. Sciammarela and A. J. Durelli, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 87, 55 (1961).

A. J. Durelli and V. J. Parks, Moiré Analysis of Strain (Prentice Hall, 1970).

Durelli, J.

S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).

Egashira, M.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.

Gu, C. G.

Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, B.

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré (Springer, 1994).

Ifju, P.

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré (Springer, 1994).

Kato, J.

Kishimoto, S.

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.

Kuwashima, S.

Maeda, M.

L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morse, S. A.

S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).

Nakamura, T.

Nakata, L. Y.

L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

Okada, T.

L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

Parks, V. J.

A. J. Durelli and V. J. Parks, Moiré Analysis of Strain (Prentice Hall, 1970).

Post, D.

D. Post, Exp. Mech. 28, 329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré (Springer, 1994).

Read, D. T.

D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 61, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Dally and D. T. Read, Exp. Mech. 33, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sciammarela, C. A.

C. A. Sciammarela and A. J. Durelli, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 87, 55 (1961).

Sciammarella, C. A.

S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).

Shepard, B. M.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35 (1948).

Shinya, N.

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.

Szanto, M.

D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Theocaris, S.

S. Theocaris, Moiré Fringe in Strain Analysis (Pergamon, 1969).

Wang, Q.

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weller, R.

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35 (1948).

Womack, K. H.

K. H. Womack, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 23, 391 (1984).

Xie, H.

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Yang, I. M.

Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yung, K. H.

A. Asundi and K. H. Yung, Exp. Mech. 31, 236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

L. Y. Nakata, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1481 (2004).

Exp. Mech. (4)

J. W. Dally and D. T. Read, Exp. Mech. 33, 270 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Read, J. W. Dally, and M. Szanto, Exp. Mech. 33, 110 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Asundi and K. H. Yung, Exp. Mech. 31, 236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Post, Exp. Mech. 28, 329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Xie, Q. Wang, S. Kishimoto, and F. Dai, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 103511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Engrg. Mech. Div. (2)

S. A. Morse, J. Durelli, and C. A. Sciammarella, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 86, 105 (1960).

C. A. Sciammarela and A. J. Durelli, J. Engrg. Mech. Div. 87, 55 (1961).

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (2)

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, and N. Shinya, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 32, 522 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Womack, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 23, 391 (1984).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. Morimoto, I. M. Yang, and C. G. Gu, Opt. Lasers Eng. 24, 3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. (1)

R. Weller and B. M. Shepard, Proc. Soc. Exp. Stress Anal. 6, 35 (1948).

Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. (1)

D. T. Read and J. W. Dally, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 61, 402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. Kishimoto, M. Egashira, N. Shinya, and R. A. Carolan, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Pergamon, 1991), p. 661.

A. J. Durelli and V. J. Parks, Moiré Analysis of Strain (Prentice Hall, 1970).

S. Theocaris, Moiré Fringe in Strain Analysis (Pergamon, 1969).

D. Post, B. Han, and P. Ifju, High Sensitivity Moiré (Springer, 1994).

F. P. Chiang, Moiré Method of Strain Analysis Manual on Experimental Stress Analysis, 5th ed., J.F.Doyle and J.W.Phillips, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, 1982), p. 107.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM image of the microgrids by femtosecond laser exposure. (a) Parallel lines observed by SLM, (b) cross grid observed by SLM, (c) parallel lines observed by SEM, and (d) cross grid observed by SEM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a CCD moiré fringe, (b) scanning laser moiré fringe, and (c) electron moiré fringe.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic formation of moiré fringes. (a) CCD moiré fringe, (b) scanning laser moiré fringe, and (c) electron moiré fringe.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electron moiré fringes caused by electron beam scan (a) vertical direction and (b) horizontal direction and distributed strain (a) ε x and (b) ε y .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Exposure Condition of Femtosecond Laser

Equations (1)

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ε = a d a a a a ,

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