Abstract

We have demonstrated an anti-Stokes random laser emission at λ885nm in micrometer-size powder of GaAs. The maximal pumping wavelength, λ=1300nm, exceeded the lasing wavelength by nearly 50%. We conclude that both one- and two-photon pumping contribute to optical excitation of the material, with the two-photon pumping being a key process in creating the population inversion and gain.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).
  3. V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 19, 1922 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Gouedard, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, F. Auzel, and A. Migus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2358 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005), p. 235.
  15. M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L1337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. A. Goldberg and N. M. Schmidt, in Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters, M.Levinshtein, S.Rumyantsev, and M.Shur, eds. (World Scientific, 1999), Vol. 2, p. 62.
  18. R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).
  20. T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid State Lasers (Springer, 2002), p. 409.

2005

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

1995

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 19, 1922 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1986

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

1966

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Bahoura, M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Basov, N. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid State Lasers (Springer, 2002), p. 409.

Boggess, T. F.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, Ch. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, M. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caulfield, H. J.

Chan, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dice, G. D.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, B. C.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Egarievwe, S. U.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R. I.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, I.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, Y. A.

Y. A. Goldberg and N. M. Schmidt, in Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters, M.Levinshtein, S.Rumyantsev, and M.Shur, eds. (World Scientific, 1999), Vol. 2, p. 62.

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T. R.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husson, D.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid State Lasers (Springer, 2002), p. 409.

Kryukov, P. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Opt. 35, 640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-H.

Liu, X.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahdi, M.

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Markushev, V. M.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

Moss, S. C.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mungan, C. E.

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, S. U. Egarievwe, N. Noginova, J. C. Wang, and H. J. Caulfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005), p. 235.

Noginova, N.

Noginova, N. E.

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

Pacheco, D. P.

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherbakov, I. A.

I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).

Schmidt, N. M.

Y. A. Goldberg and N. M. Schmidt, in Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters, M.Levinshtein, S.Rumyantsev, and M.Shur, eds. (World Scientific, 1999), Vol. 2, p. 62.

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sha, W. L.

Smirl, A. L.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. A.

I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).

Sorokina, I. T.

I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).

Thompson, T.

Umyskov, A. F.

I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).

Van Stryland, E. W.

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswarlu, P.

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, T. Thompson, M. Mahdi, and V. Ostroumov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2024 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C.

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zolin, V. F.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. M. Lawandy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 442 (1966).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, S. C. Moss, I. W. Boyd, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 488 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, I. Fowlkes, and M. Bahoura, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, Nature 368, 436 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Epstein, M. I. Buchwald, B. C. Edwards, T. R. Gosnell, and C. E. Mungan, Nature 377, 500 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. A. Noginov, N. E. Noginova, H. J. Caulfield, P. Venkateswarlu, and M. Mahdi, Opt. Commun. 118, 430 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S.-H. Chan, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5584 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. S. Letokhov, Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 (1968).

Other

M. A. Noginov, Solid-State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005), p. 235.

W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid State Lasers (Springer, 2002), p. 409.

I. T. Sorokina, A. F. Umyskov, V. A. Smirnov, and I. A. Scherbakov, in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 20, T.Y.Fan and B.T. H.Chai, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1994).

Y. A. Goldberg and N. M. Schmidt, in Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters, M.Levinshtein, S.Rumyantsev, and M.Shur, eds. (World Scientific, 1999), Vol. 2, p. 62.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Input–output curves of anti-Stokes stimulated emission in a GaAs random laser operating at λ 885 nm . Diamonds, λ pump = 930 nm , d 1.2 mm ; triangles, λ pump = 940 nm , d 1.2 mm ; crosses, λ pump = 1300 nm , d 0.4 mm ; open circles, pumping at λ pump = 532 nm , d 1.2 mm . Right inset, the same data set as diamonds in the main frame plotted against P abs = P inc 3 2 . Top inset, stimulated emission spectra in a GaAs random laser at excitation with 532 (trace 1) and 930 ( trace 2 ) nm laser pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

One-photon absorption spectrum of a single-crystal GaAs (trace 1) and one-photon reflectivity spectrum of GaAs powder (trace 2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Energy level diagram of an anti-Stokes GaAs random laser. 1, absorption transition between defect states D 1 in the vicinity of the VB and the CB; 2, absorption transition between VB and defect states D 2 in the vicinity of the CB; 3, two-photon absorption VB CB ; 4, CB VB emission. E F is the Fermi level.

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