Abstract

We present a fiber-to-waveguide coupling structure, the so-called vertical J coupler, based on the parabolic reflector. The device addresses the multiple objectives of high coupling efficiency, large bandwidth operation, polarization insensitivity, and compact footprint. The optical mode emanating from a fiber arranged normal to the plane of the substrate is incident underneath the parabolic reflector, turned through 90° and focused into a dielectric waveguide. The viability of the coupler is demonstrated by finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic simulation as well as preliminary fabrication and optical testing of the device.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Lu and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 29, 1748 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1363 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkaway, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, Opt. Lett. 27, 1601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. http://www.emphotonics.com.
  8. E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. http://www.canyonmaterials.com.
  11. T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 29, 1748 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aagedal, H.

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Chen, C.

Choudhury, A. N. M. M.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, T.

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donval, A.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lu, Z.

Manolatou, C.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Montalbo, T.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkaway, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, Opt. Lett. 27, 1601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Prather, D.

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Richardson, D.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharkaway, A.

Shi, S.

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkaway, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, Opt. Lett. 27, 1601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanczyk, T. R.

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, F.

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, S.

Wittig, L.-C.

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yasaitis, J.

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zablocki, M.

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeitner, U. D.

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. (1)

T. Dillon, A. Sure, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 550 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (3)

A. Donval, R. Oron, M. Oron, A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, and D. Richardson, Proc. SPIE 6123, 61231E (2006).
[CrossRef]

E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, U. D. Zeitner, L.-C. Wittig, and H. Aagedal, Proc. SPIE 3276, 254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Dillon, M. Zablocki, S. Shi, J. Murakowski, and D. Prather, Proc. SPIE 6882, 688206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

http://www.emphotonics.com.

http://www.canyonmaterials.com.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional illustration of the vertical J coupler fabricated in the SOI platform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the vertical J-coupler geometry. The mirror of the coupler is seen to be a section of a parabola chosen from the set of parabolas with common focus but different values of the curvature parameter p. The five parameters p, Δ x , Δ y , Δ f , and w, as shown in the figure and described in the text, completely specify the geometry of the mirror. The underlay is the steady-state energy density as calculated by FDTD simulation of the device for TE polarization; the contrast has been enhanced for visibility. The inset shows the waveguide mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength and polarization dependence of the vertical J-coupler efficiency for coupling from fiber to waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM image of a fabricated vertical J coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Demonstration of the vertical J-coupler operation. A laser beam is focused onto the plane of the (a) coupler and translated under the (b) parabolic reflector. Output is observed from the end of the waveguide for (c) top view and (d) edge view.

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