Abstract

We applied high-temporal-resolution optical imaging utilizing both the fast intrinsic optical signal (fIOS) and voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) to observe the spatiotemporal characteristics of rat somatosensory cortex during electrical stimulation. We find that changes in both the fIOS and VSD signals occur rapidly (<30ms) after the stimulus is applied, suggesting that both membrane depolarization and transmembrane ion movement occur shortly after the stimulus, preceding the more gradual physiological changes in oxygen consumption revealed by the slower component of the intrinsic optical signal. We find that the VSD signal spreads through a much larger area of cortex than the fIOS.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, in Brain Mapping: the Methods, A.W.Toga and J.C.Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996).
  2. D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Kuncel and W. M. Grill, Clin. Neurophysiol. 115, 2431 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  6. E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  9. E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
    [PubMed]

2006

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. M. Kuncel and W. M. Grill, Clin. Neurophysiol. 115, 2431 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1968

S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
[PubMed]

Andrew, R. D.

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arieli, A.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asanuma, H.

S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
[PubMed]

Basarsky, T.

T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bonhoeffer, T.

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, in Brain Mapping: the Methods, A.W.Toga and J.C.Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996).

Brown, A.

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chvátal, A.

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feighan, D.

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
[PubMed]

George, J.

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaser, D. E.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grill, W. M.

A. M. Kuncel and W. M. Grill, Clin. Neurophysiol. 115, 2431 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grinvald, A.

C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, in Brain Mapping: the Methods, A.W.Toga and J.C.Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996).

Harper, R.

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hildesheim, R.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, C. R.

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jendelova, P.

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenet, T.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubinova, S.

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuncel, A. M.

A. M. Kuncel and W. M. Grill, Clin. Neurophysiol. 115, 2431 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logothetis, N. K.

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacVicar, B.

T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
[PubMed]

MacVicar, B. A.

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Obeidat, A. S.

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, C. C. H.

C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ransom, B.

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rector, D.

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, R.

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakmann, B.

C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Schwaber, J.

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoham, D.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slocum, W. M.

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoney, S. D.

S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
[PubMed]

Sultan, F.

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykova, E.

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tehovnik, E. J.

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, W. D.

S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
[PubMed]

Toledo, Y.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tolias, A. S.

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargova, L.

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijnbergen, C.

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Neurophysiol.

A. M. Kuncel and W. M. Grill, Clin. Neurophysiol. 115, 2431 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glia

B. A. MacVicar, D. Feighan, A. Brown, and B. Ransom, Glia 37, 114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurophysiol.

S. D. Stoney, W. D. Thompson, and H. Asanuma, J. Neurophysiol. 31, 659 (1968).
[PubMed]

E. J. Tehovnik, A. S. Tolias, F. Sultan, W. M. Slocum, and N. K. Logothetis, J. Neurophysiol. 96, 512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci.

T. Basarsky, D. Feighan, and B. MacVicar, J. Neurosci. 19, 6439 (1999).
[PubMed]

C. C. H. Petersen, A. Grinvald, and B. Sakmann, J. Neurosci. 23, 1298 (2003).
[PubMed]

Methods

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage

E. Sykova, L. Vargova, S. Kubinova, P. Jendelova, and A. Chvátal, Neuroimage 18, 214 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rector, R. Rogers, J. Schwaber, R. Harper, and J. George, Neuroimage 14, 977 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuron

D. Shoham, D. E. Glaser, A. Arieli, T. Kenet, C. Wijnbergen, Y. Toledo, R. Hildesheim, and A. Grinvald, Neuron 24, 791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Bonhoeffer and A. Grinvald, in Brain Mapping: the Methods, A.W.Toga and J.C.Mazziota, eds. (Academic, 1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A, superimposition of the region of recording on a color image of the cortical surface. B, VSD (top curve), fIOS (bottom curve). In both cases (VSD and fIOS), the signal is averaged over 30 trials. C, images of the cortex before and after stimulus onset; numbers indicate camera frame number; time interval between frames is 10 ms ; frame 1000 coincides with time t = 0 ms in 1B. The fIOS signal (left color scale) is superimposed on the image of the cortex, as is the VSD signal (right color scale). Calibration bar shows 1 mm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, time course of RH-795 response at the five locations depicted in B. The numbers and colors in A correspond to those in B; the bipolar electrode is labeled BE. C, areas activated by electrical stimulation. D, signal time course in a 100 × 100 μ m region of interest near the stimulation electrodes, averaged over all rats imaged. In all panels, arrow indicates stimulus onset. In panels C and D, error bars show standard deviation over all rats imaged.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ V Δ r = d V d r = i s 4 π r 2 = K ,

Metrics