Abstract

We detected the second-order nonlinear response from single isolated spheres comprised from a centrosymmetric material but covered by a layer of a material with strong second-order nonlinear properties and isolated from an ensemble by the optical trapping technique. We show that when large size parameter spheres are used, the measured second-harmonic efficiency deviates strongly from the prediction of the nonlinear Rayleigh scattering theory. Our results are in very good agreement with the predictions from the exact nonlinear Mie scattering theory.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Y. Pavlyukh and W. Hübner, Phys. Rev. B 70, 245434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Agate, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Opt. Express 12, 3011 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. A 64, 045801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. Malmquvist and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 34, 3392 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

S. Sato and H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 28, 286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 14, 492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Acker, W. P.

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 14, 492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agate, B.

Angerer, W. E.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. A 64, 045801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Brown, C. T. A.

Chang, R. K.

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 14, 492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A.

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Cooper, J.

Corbalán, R.

J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Creely, C. M.

C. M. Creely, G. P. Singh, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 245, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Danckwerts, M.

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Docherty, F. T.

Dufresne, E. R.

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faustov, A.

Gelan, J. M.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graham, D.

Grier, D. G.

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

Hübner, W.

Y. Pavlyukh and W. Hübner, Phys. Rev. B 70, 245434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Inaba, H.

S. Sato and H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 28, 286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, T.

Jordan, P.

Kao, F.-J.

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Karmenyan, A. V.

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Kip, B. J.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kudelski, A.

A. Kudelski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 414, 271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leach, D. H.

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 14, 492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippitz, M.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, Nano Lett. 5, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Calahorra, F.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malmquvist, L.

Malmqvist, L.

Markwort, L.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martorell, J.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Martorell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2075 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maymó, M.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McNay, G.

Meier, R. J.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Molinos-Gómez, A.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, Y.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onorato, R. M.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, Nano Lett. 5, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M.

Pauzauskie, P. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlyukh, Y.

Y. Pavlyukh and W. Hübner, Phys. Rev. B 70, 245434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perevedentseva, E. V.

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Petrov, D. V.

C. M. Creely, G. P. Singh, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 245, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, G. I.

Radenovic, A.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltiel, S. M.

Sato, S.

S. Sato and T. Inaba, Opt. Lett. 19, 927 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sato and H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 28, 286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheepers, M. L.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shcheslavskiy, V. I.

Sibbett, W.

Sinclair, G.

Singh, G. P.

C. M. Creely, G. P. Singh, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 245, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. E.

van Dijk, M. A.

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, Nano Lett. 5, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderzande, D. J.

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Velasco, D.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, X.

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vilaseca, R.

J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Yang, N.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. A 64, 045801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. A 64, 045801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

A. Molinos-Gómez, M. Maymó, X. Vidal, J. Martorell, D. Velasco, and F. López-Calahorra, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 19, 3814 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kudelski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 414, 271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Sato and H. Inaba, Electron. Lett. 28, 286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, Nano Lett. 5, 799 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. Yang, Nature 447, 1098 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. M. Creely, G. P. Singh, and D. V. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 245, 465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. A 64, 045801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Martorell, R. Vilaseca, and R. Corbalán, Phys. Rev. A 55, 4520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Pavlyukh and W. Hübner, Phys. Rev. B 70, 245434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

N. Yang, W. E. Angerer, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 103902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4045 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Danckwerts and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

E. V. Perevedentseva, A. V. Karmenyan, F.-J. Kao, and A. Chiou, Scanning 26, 78 (2004).

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

M. L. Scheepers, R. J. Meier, L. Markwort, J. M. Gelan, D. J. Vanderzande, and B. J. Kip, Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 139 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectra of single optically trapped spheres with arrows showing characteristic lines of CV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. CCD, charged-coupled device; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of the pump intensity near (a) 4 μ m and (b) 0.4 μ m spheres. An incident plane wave propagates in the + z direction. In the calculations the intensity of the incident wave is equal to 1. A white ring shows an interface between the sphere and air.

Metrics