Abstract

A novel flexible scanning optical probe is constructed with a finely etched optical fiber strung through a platinum coil in the lumen of a dissipative polymer. The packaged probe is 2.2mm in diameter with a rigid length of 6mm when using a ball lens or 12mm when scanning the fiber proximal to a gradient-index (GRIN) lens. Driven by constant high voltage (13kV) at low current (<5μA), the probe oscillates to provide wide forward-viewing angle (13° and 33° with ball and GRIN lens designs, respectively) and high-frame-rate (10140fps) operation. Motion of the probe tip is observed with a high-speed camera and compared with theory. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging with the probe is demonstrated with a wavelength-swept source laser. Images of an IR card as well as in vivo Doppler OCT images of a tadpole heart are presented. This optomechanical design offers a simple, inexpensive method to obtain a high-frame-rate forward-viewing scanning probe.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

T. Wang, M. Bachman, G. P. Li, S. Guo, B. J. Wong, and Z. P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 53 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, D. Mukai, S. Guo, M. Brenner, and Z.P. Chen, Opt. Lett. 30, 1803 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Zara, S. Yazdanfar, K. D. Rao, J. A. Izatt, and S. W. Smith, Opt. Lett. 28, 628 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

E. Ollier, P. Labeye, and F. Revol, Electron. Lett. 31, 2003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Aretz, H. T.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachman, M.

Barton, J. K.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Opt. Lett. 22, 1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, M.

Brezinski, M. E.

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Opt. Lett. 22, 1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castillo, J. E.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z. P.

Cobb, M. J.

Conry, M.

Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedder, G. K.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gu, C.

Guo, S.

Halpern, E. F.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houser, S.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftima, N.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimmey, M. B.

Kostuk, R. K.

Labeye, P.

E. Ollier, P. Labeye, and F. Revol, Electron. Lett. 31, 2003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. P.

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

MacNeill, B.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathine, D.

Moselewski, F.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

Nishioka, N. S.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W.-Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ollier, E.

E. Ollier, P. Labeye, and F. Revol, Electron. Lett. 31, 2003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. A.

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Rao, K. D.

Revol, F.

E. Ollier, P. Labeye, and F. Revol, Electron. Lett. 31, 2003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

Scepanovic, M.

Shishkov, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. W.

Stamper, D. L.

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takano, M.

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, G. J. Tearney, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Opt. Lett. 22, 1618 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Wang, T.

Wong, B. J.

Wu, J.

Xie, H.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, Appl. Opt. 43, 6422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, T.

Yang, C.

Yaqoob, Z.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zara, J. M.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Circulation (1)

I. K. Jang, G. J. Tearney, B. MacNeill, M. Takano, F. Moselewski, N. Iftima, M. Shishkov, S. Houser, H. T. Aretz, E. F. Halpern, and B. E. Bouma, Circulation 111, 1551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Ollier, P. Labeye, and F. Revol, Electron. Lett. 31, 2003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging (1)

N. A. Patel, X. D. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, Int. J. Cardiovasc. Imaging 19, 171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the electrostatic probe, shown with a ball-lensed fiber. (b) End-on view of the three lumen catheter. (c) Photograph of the probe with a ball-lensed fiber within the coil, shown in oscillation driven at 1200 V with 2 μ A current. Length of the cantilever was 4 mm with an angle of oscillation θ = 13 ° .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The measured frequency response of the probe as a function of driving voltage in air (diamonds) and mineral oil (squares). Arrows indicate the voltage required to initiate motion. (b) Theoretical model (line) and experimental results (points) of the probe motion. Zero displacement was defined as the midpoint between the two electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sector image of an IR card taken using the electrostatic ball-lens probe, resulting in 13 ° scan angle. (b) Sector image of an IR card taken with an electrostatic probe in which the fiber was scanned behind a GRIN lens, demonstrating 33 ° scan angle. (c) Structural image of the heart of Xenopus laevis taken with the GRIN lens design identifies left (L) and right (R) aortic arches and (d) corresponding Doppler image showing the aortic branches. A small gill vessel is identified with a V. Horizontal scale bars, 1 mm . Scale corresponds to phase shift owing to Doppler effect.

Equations (2)

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δ 2 r δ t 2 = k s r α δ r δ t + k c q a 2 4 ( r + R ) 2 .
δ 2 r δ t 2 = k s r α δ r δ t + k c q b q e l e c ( r + R ) + k c q b 2 4 ( r R ) 2 .

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