Abstract

We introduce a sensor for providing information on the local contrast gloss (or luster) of products. The sensor also provides information of the local specular gloss of the object. The signals of this sensor are produced by diffractive optical elements from fields that are scattered in the diffuse and specular directions from the object. We present specular gloss, diffuse-reflectance factor related to the contrast gloss, and visibility maps measured from black prints on paper. High variation can be observed in the relevant gloss parameters obtained from the printed area. In addition, borders of the print can be clearly detected from the diffuse-reflectance-factor maps. The sensor also allows detection of raster points of a print. This sensor opens up entirely new means to study prints and other substances.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).
  2. M. Landy, Nature 447, 158 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Ji, M. R. Pointer, R. M. Luo, and J. Dakin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 22 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
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  10. V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).

2008 (1)

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier Science, 2008).

2007 (3)

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Landy, Nature 447, 158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2000 (1)

1990 (1)

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson, Tappi J. 73, 161 (1990).

1987 (1)

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

1945 (1)

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).

Alarousu, E.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beland, M.

Bennett, J.

Dakin, J.

Elton, N.

N. Elton and J. Preston, Tappi J. 5, 10 (2006).

Harold, R. W.

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

Harrison, V. G. W.

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

Ji, W.

Johansson, P.

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson, Tappi J. 73, 161 (1990).

Juuti, M.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koivula, H.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lähteelä, A.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landy, M.

M. Landy, Nature 447, 158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, R. M.

MacGregor, M.

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson, Tappi J. 73, 161 (1990).

Myller, K.

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier Science, 2008).

Myllylä, R.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myllys, M.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oksman, A.

A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peiponen, K.-E.

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier Science, 2008).

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

Preston, J.

N. Elton and J. Preston, Tappi J. 5, 10 (2006).

Prykäri, T.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silvennoinen, R.

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier Science, 2008).

Timonen, J.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toivakka, M.

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Colloids Surf. A (1)

M. Juuti, T. Prykäri, E. Alarousu, H. Koivula, M. Myllys, A. Lähteelä, M. Toivakka, J. Timonen, R. Myllylä, and K.-E. Peiponen, Colloids Surf. A 299, 101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Oksman, M. Juuti, and K.-E. Peiponen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 2185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Landy, Nature 447, 158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tappi J. (2)

N. Elton and J. Preston, Tappi J. 5, 10 (2006).

M. MacGregor and P. Johansson, Tappi J. 73, 161 (1990).

Other (3)

R. Silvennoinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and K. Myller, Specular Gloss (Elsevier Science, 2008).

V. G. W. Harrison, Definition and Measurement of Gloss (Printing and Allied Trades Research Association, 1945).

R. S. Hunter and R. W. Harold, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1987).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the sensor for detection of local specular and contrast gloss. C, collimating optics; L, lens; S, sample; WFR, speckle pattern incident on the DOE; and the image of the grating structure of the DOE is the right-hand side of WFR. CCD1 and CCD2 are CCD cameras for recording specularly and diffusely propagating light, respectively. At the bottom are two images of 16 light spots recorded by the CCD cameras. The angle α is 45°. The minimum (light gray) and maximum (dark gray) areas of the schematic image of 16 light spots are shown in the left lower corner. A dashed square marks the area where the intensity in Eq. (3) is calculated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Gloss map obtained from a letter B measured in the specular direction. The scale of gloss reading G is shown in the sidebar. (b) Corresponding diffuse-reflectance-factor map D measured in diffuse direction. (c) Visibility map V x , G measured in the specular direction. (d) Visibility map V x , D measured in the diffuse direction. All maps covered the same region of 3.96 mm × 3.96 mm on the surface of the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Specular gloss map obtained from a raster of black dots. The scale of gloss reading G is shown in the sidebar. (b) Corresponding diffuse-reflectance-factor map D. Both maps cover the same region of 2 mm × 2 mm on the surface of the sample

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G = 100 × I sample , specular I reference ,
D = 100 × I sample , diffuse I reference ,
I = 1 N M i = 1 , j = 1 N , M I i , j ,
V = I max I min I max + I min ,
G c = 100 ( 1 D G ) .

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