Abstract

Refractive index modification of pure poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is investigated as a function of pulse duration using femtosecond lasers at 800 and 387nm wavelength. It is observed that at 800nm, the refractive index is modified more efficiently as the pulse duration decreases below 100fs, whereas at 387nm, efficient index modification is accomplished with longer, 180fs pulses. Results suggest that three- and two-photon absorption is responsible for modification of pure PMMA at 800nm and 387nm, respectively. Repeated irradiation with short pulses of low laser fluence allows control of the photomodification via incubation, thus reducing bulk damage.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Scully, D. Jones, and D. Jaroszynski, J. Opt. A 5, S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Basanta, M.

Baum, A.

Brodeur, A.

C. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chalker, P.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fielden, P.

Goddard, N.

Gong, Q. H.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jaroszynski, D.

P. Scully, D. Jones, and D. Jaroszynski, J. Opt. A 5, S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. B.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D.

P. Scully, D. Jones, and D. Jaroszynski, J. Opt. A 5, S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, T.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mädebach, H.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mero, M.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D.

D. Nikogosyan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Peng, C.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perrie, W.

Perry, M.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ristau, D.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C.

C. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scully, P.

Shore, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sowa, S.

Spielmann, C.

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Starke, K.

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B.

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

Thomas, C.

Urech, L.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wokaun, A.

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Kautek, J. Krüger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. Krüger, S. Martin, H. Mädebach, L. Urech, T. Lippert, A. Wokaun, and W. Kautek, Appl. Surf. Sci. 247, 406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

P. Scully, D. Jones, and D. Jaroszynski, J. Opt. A 5, S92 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, J. Opt. A 6, 787 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

D. Nikogosyan, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, R1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Mero, J. Liu, W. Rudolph, D. Ristau, and K. Starke, Phys. Rev. B 71, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Stuart, M. Feit, S. Herman, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First-order diffraction efficiency η of refractive index gratings as a function of pulse duration and number of pulses per spot N p ( τ p = 45 210 fs , Φ = 0.14 J cm 2 , N s = 2 32 , and λ = 800 nm ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Yield of photoreaction at a fixed pulse duration ( τ p = 60 fs ) versus laser fluence, accumulated over a number of pulses N p at four constant laser fluences ( Φ = 0.1 , 0.12, 0.14, and 0.16 J cm 2 ); line gradients indicate the order of the nonlinear process (Table 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Determination of the order of the photomodification process in pure PMMA for 800 nm ( τ p = 40 fs ) and 387 nm ( τ p = 180 fs ) by plotting photoreaction yield versus integrated fluence; line gradients of 2.9 and 2.0 indicate three- and two-photon absorption at 800 nm and 387 nm , respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Trend Line Gradients from Data in Fig. 2 Indicate the Order of the Photomodification Process, Depending on the Exposure

Equations (1)

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d ρ d t = α I ρ + σ m I m .

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