Abstract

We demonstrate 1500nm band single-photon detection with low dark-count noise and a potentially high efficiency, which may allow long distance and high-bit-rate quantum key distribution. By developing frequency upconversion devices based on periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides, which are specifically designed to use a pump wavelength longer than that of communication-band photons, we completely eliminate the dark-count noise caused by parasitic nonlinear processes in the waveguide. We observed an internal conversion efficiency as high as 40% and demonstrated scaling down to the single photon level while maintaining a background dark-count rate of 102s1.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Bourennane, F. Gibson, A. Karlsson, A. Hening, P. Jonsson, T. Tsegaye, D. Ljunggren, and E. Sundberg, Opt. Express 4, 383 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 45, 5757 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Electron. Lett. 40, 1603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and T. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

2003 (2)

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Yokohama, M. Asobe, A. Yokoo, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3368 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, M.

Diamanti, E.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Drozhzhin, A.

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gapontsev, D.

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, F.

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gobby, C.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Electron. Lett. 40, 1603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hening, A.

Honjo, T.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 45, 5757 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and T. Takahashi, Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

Itoh, H.

Jonsson, P.

Kaino, T.

Kaji, R.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Karlsson, A.

Kimura, T.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuneva, M.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

Langrock, C.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ljunggren, D.

Meleshkevich, M.

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nambu, Y.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, M. N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, N.

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pokrovskii, L.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Savatinova, I.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schaufele, R. F.

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Electron. Lett. 40, 1603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D.

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sundberg, E.

Suzuki, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

Takesue, H.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, Opt. Express 15, 13957 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 45, 5757 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terpugov, N.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsegaye, T.

Tsuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vandevender, A. P.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

Weber, M. J.

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wegmüller, M.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

Yamamoto, Y.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

Yokoo, A.

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Electron. Lett. 40, 1603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ziling, C.

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, Electron. Lett. 40, 1603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, Electron. Lett. 39, 1199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 37, 962 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, Electron. Lett. 39, 609 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Ziling, L. Pokrovskii, N. Terpugov, I. Savatinova, M. Kuneva, S. Tonchev, M. N. Armenise, and M. N. Passaro, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3125 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmüller, and H. Zbinden, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 43, L735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

H. Takesue, T. Honjo, and H. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 45, 5757 (2006).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (2)

D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, New J. Phys. 4, 41.1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232.1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. F. Schaufele and M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 152, 705 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Meleshkevich, A. Drozhzhin, N. Platonov, D. Gapontsev, and D. Starodubov, Proc. SPIE 5709, 117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for measuring SFG characteristics of 1550 nm 976 nm (SP-type) and 1550 nm 1810 nm (LP-type) PPLN waveguides. Combined pump and signal lights were injected into the waveguide by fiber butting. For photon counting, an attenuated signal was coupled into the waveguide, and the SFG was delivered either directly or via a monochromator to a Si-SPCM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SFG output power (left), transmitted signal (middle), and pump (right) for (a) an SP device around phase matching as a function of signal wavelength and (b) an LP device. The temperature was set at 24 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photon detection efficiency and DC rate as a function of 976 nm pump power coupled into a waveguide for an SP-type upconversion device measured through a monochromator. The throughput between the LN waveguide and the APD was 23 % ( η Si 67 % ) . (b) For an LP-type device. The DCs are plotted at the SFG wavelength and at 839.6 nm . The throughput was 20 % ( η Si 57 % ) . After filtering the 1500 nm band photons from the pump, the DC at SFG was reduced to below 100 cps .

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