Abstract

We introduce “microdeflectometry,” a novel technique for measuring the microtopography of specular surfaces. The primary data are the local slope of the surface under test. Measuring the slope instead of the height implies high information efficiency and extreme sensitivity to local shape irregularities. The lateral resolution can be better than 1μm, whereas the resulting height resolution is in the range of 1nm. Microdeflectometry can be supplemented by methods to expand the depth of field, with the potential to provide quantitative 3D imaging with scanning-electron-microscope-like features.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Ritter and R. Hahn, Opt. Lasers Eng. 1, 33 (1983).
  2. G. Häusler, German patent DE 19944354.
  3. D. Pérard and J. Beyerer, Proc. SPIE 3204, 74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Petz and R. Tutsch, VDI-Ber. 1844, 327 (2004).
  5. T. Bothe, W. Li, C. von Kopylow, and W. Jüptner, Proc. SPIE 5457, 411 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Häusler, Proc. SPIE 5457, 366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Wagner and G. Häusler, Appl. Opt. 42, 5418 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. C. Knauer, T. Bothe, S. Lowitzsch, W. Jüptner, and G. Häusler, Proc. DGaO, 107, B30 (2006).
  9. 3D-Shape GmbH, http://www.3d-shape.com/produkte/pmdlowbare.php.
  10. R. D. Geckeler and I. Weingärtner, Proc. SPIE 4779, 1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Lowitzsch, J. Kaminski, M. C. Knauer, and G. Häusler, Proc. VMV, 479 (2005).
  12. G. Häusler and E. Körner, Ziess. Inform. 29, 9 (1986).
  13. M.Davidson and M.Abramowitz, Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J.Hornak, ed. (Wiley, 2002), p. 1106.

2004 (3)

M. Petz and R. Tutsch, VDI-Ber. 1844, 327 (2004).

T. Bothe, W. Li, C. von Kopylow, and W. Jüptner, Proc. SPIE 5457, 411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Häusler, Proc. SPIE 5457, 366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

R. D. Geckeler and I. Weingärtner, Proc. SPIE 4779, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Pérard and J. Beyerer, Proc. SPIE 3204, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. Häusler and E. Körner, Ziess. Inform. 29, 9 (1986).

1983 (1)

R. Ritter and R. Hahn, Opt. Lasers Eng. 1, 33 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

R. Ritter and R. Hahn, Opt. Lasers Eng. 1, 33 (1983).

Proc. SPIE (4)

D. Pérard and J. Beyerer, Proc. SPIE 3204, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Bothe, W. Li, C. von Kopylow, and W. Jüptner, Proc. SPIE 5457, 411 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Knauer, J. Kaminski, and G. Häusler, Proc. SPIE 5457, 366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Geckeler and I. Weingärtner, Proc. SPIE 4779, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

VDI-Ber. (1)

M. Petz and R. Tutsch, VDI-Ber. 1844, 327 (2004).

Ziess. Inform. (1)

G. Häusler and E. Körner, Ziess. Inform. 29, 9 (1986).

Other (5)

M.Davidson and M.Abramowitz, Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, J.Hornak, ed. (Wiley, 2002), p. 1106.

S. Lowitzsch, J. Kaminski, M. C. Knauer, and G. Häusler, Proc. VMV, 479 (2005).

G. Häusler, German patent DE 19944354.

M. C. Knauer, T. Bothe, S. Lowitzsch, W. Jüptner, and G. Häusler, Proc. DGaO, 107, B30 (2006).

3D-Shape GmbH, http://www.3d-shape.com/produkte/pmdlowbare.php.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup for microscopic PMD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Repeatability, measured on a planar mirror. Displayed are the angular measuring uncertainty δ α and the corresponding height uncertainty δ x δ α versus the normalized pattern distance; δ z R is the Rayleigh dof. Objective: 50 × 0.85 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Razor blade. (a) Local slope in y direction, and (b) in x direction. Objective 5 × 0.12 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Slope image of a microlens array; (b) cross section through height map (by integration).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microdeflectometry with additional expansion of dof. Slope image (x direction) of a used bearing ball. Height range 17 μ m (30-fold dof, objective 50 × 0.85 ). To reduce the dynamical range of the picture, only the deviation of the measured slope from the slope of the sphere is displayed: (a) standard measurement, and (b) measurement with ∼ 30-fold expanded dof.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wafer section; local slope in the y direction.

Equations (2)

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δ x δ α = λ Q .
δ x δ α 1 nm.

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