Abstract

A simple multilevel halftoning method, which is based on the conventional error diffusion method and realizes halftoning excelled in the distribution of dots, is proposed. The proposed method consists of three steps, e.g., the image decomposition, the generation of binary halftone images by the error diffusion, and the synthesis of a multilevel halftone image, and each step does not require a complicated algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed method is indicated by applying it to three- and four-level halftoning of gray-tone and natural images.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, Proc. S.I.D. 17, 75 (1976).
  2. R. A. Ulichney, Digital Halftoning (MIT Press, 1987).
  3. H. R. Kang, Digital Color Halftoning (SPIE Press, 1999).
  4. F. Fetthauer and O. Bryngdahl, Opt. Lett. 23, 739 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. Ostromoukhov, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2001), pp. 567-572.
  6. B. Zhou and X. Fang, ACM Trans. Graphics 22, 437 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Mitsa, K. L. Varkur, and J. R. Alford, Proc. SPIE 1913, 390 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2003

B. Zhou and X. Fang, ACM Trans. Graphics 22, 437 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

1993

T. Mitsa, K. L. Varkur, and J. R. Alford, Proc. SPIE 1913, 390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1976

R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, Proc. S.I.D. 17, 75 (1976).

ACM Trans. Graphics

B. Zhou and X. Fang, ACM Trans. Graphics 22, 437 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. S.I.D.

R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, Proc. S.I.D. 17, 75 (1976).

Proc. SPIE

T. Mitsa, K. L. Varkur, and J. R. Alford, Proc. SPIE 1913, 390 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Ulichney, Digital Halftoning (MIT Press, 1987).

H. R. Kang, Digital Color Halftoning (SPIE Press, 1999).

V. Ostromoukhov, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 2001), pp. 567-572.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gray-tone test image and its quantized versions produced by Ostromoukhov’s method: (a) test image, (b) binary halftone image, and (c) three-level halftone image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the proposed method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transform functions to produce X 1 and X 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images produced by the proposed method in the case where n = 3 : (a) X 1 , (b) X 2 , (c) Y 1 , (d) Y 2 , and (e) Y.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resulting images for a sine-wave image in the case where n = 3 : (a) original image, (b) halftone image produced by Ostromoukhov’s method, and (c) halftone image produced by the proposed method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

WSNRs for resulting images in the case where n = 3 . In the figure, the horizontal axis shows the distance between an observer and a printed image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Resulting images for Boat in the case where n = 3 : (a) partial original image, (b) halftone image produced by Ostromoukhov’s method, and (c) halftone image produced by the proposed method.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Resulting images for Boat in the case where n = 4 : (a) halftone image produced by Ostromoukhov’s method, and (b) halftone image produced by the proposed method.

Equations (7)

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Y ( i ) = L * ,
X ¯ ( i ) = X ( i ) + j w i j e ( j ) ,
T k = L k + d 2 ,
X 0 ( i ) = L n ,
X m ( i ) = X m 1 ( i ) ( n 1 ) ! ( m 1 ) ! ( n m ) ! X m 1 ( i ) ( 1 X ( i ) L n ) n m L n m 2 ,
m = 1 n 1 X m ( i ) n 1 = X ( i ) .
Y ( i ) = m = 1 n 1 Y m ( i ) n 1 .

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