Abstract

We present genetic algorithms as optimization tools for the design of header recognition filters based on time-delay lines. The fitness parameter in the selection process is the discrimination of the target against all other bit patterns. For phase-shift-keyed headers, optimized filters exhibit improved discrimination compared with the matched filter. Time-domain filtering with no ambiguities is also achieved for specific amplitude-shift-keyed headers. Delay-line-based time-domain filters can be implemented in a planar lightwave circuit platform by simple phase and amplitude adjustments on the time delay taps.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2005 (3)

2004 (3)

J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, Electron. Lett. 40, 894 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Cincotti, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1642 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Furukawa, T. Konishi, Y. Oshita, W. Yu, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7065 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, and J. Barton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2058 (2000).

K.-I. Kitayama, N. Wada, and H. Sotobayashi, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1834 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Calabretta, G. Contestabile, and E. Ciaramella, Electron. Lett. 41, 865 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, Electron. Lett. 40, 894 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. S. Rasras, I. Kang, M. Dinu, J. Jaques, N. Dutta, A. Piccirilli, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, S. Cabot, G. S. Johnson, L. Buhl, and S. S. Patel, "A programmable 8-bit optical correlator filter for optical bit pattern recognition," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (to be published).

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, and J. Barton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2058 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Furukawa, T. Konishi, Y. Oshita, W. Yu, K. Itoh, and Y. Ichioka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7065 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a time-delay-line correlator. Correlator outputs for target and nontarget inputs are indicated by the solid and dotted curve, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the filter population { F i } involves mutations of the filter elements (genes–delay line transmission A and phase values ϕ, both represented schematically as squares), followed by selection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum and mean fitness versus generation number in a population of 20 filters. The horizontal dashed line indicates the fitness of the matched filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission amplitudes and phases of the filter arms for the (a) matched and (b) optimized filter, for the target byte 0 x 95 . Correlation peak intensities versus input byte value for the (c) matched and (d) optimized filter. The discrimination level D 8 is also indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Discrimination versus bit pattern for the (a) OOK and (b) ASK modulation formats represented in the inset phasor diagrams, where the two axes designate the quadratures of the optical signal. Filter function for the (c) OOK-coded ‘1101’-bit pattern and (d) ASK-coded ‘1100'-bit pattern.

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