Abstract

Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) for 5μm in wavelength have been realized. The active parts are of a simple structure, either a 2μm thick PbTe gain layer or two 150nm PbTe layers embedded in Pb1xEuxTe barriers. Epitaxial 2.5 pair Pb1yEuyTeBaF2 Bragg mirrors are employed to form the cavity, and an Al layer is deposited for improved heat dissipation. Emission up to 300mWp is observed with microsecond pulses or 3mW cw at 100K is obtained. Quantum efficiency is up to 14%, and lasing occurs up to 175K when pumped with a 1.55μm wavelength pump laser.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Tropper and S. Hoogland, Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Tacke, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 359, 547 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. P. Schiessel and J. Rohr, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Khosravani and Z. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 139 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D.Khokhlov, ed., in Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices, Vol. 18, M. O. Manasreh, series ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).
  15. Note that all VECSEL realized with III-V materials use stacks of QW for optimized performance.
  16. M. Rahim and H. Zogg, “5μm VECSEL on Si substrate,” Electron Lett. (to be published).

2008

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. C. Tropper and S. Hoogland, Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Tacke, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 359, 547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Khosravani and Z. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

U. P. Schiessel and J. Rohr, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aellen, T.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M.

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behfar, K.

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Böberl, M.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canedy, C. L.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felder, F.

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, H. D.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fürst, J.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heiss, W.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

A. C. Tropper and S. Hoogland, Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S. H.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J.-M.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ilegems, M.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufmann, E.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khosravani, S.

S. Khosravani and Z. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Majumdar, A.

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascher, H.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rahim, M.

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahim and H. Zogg, “5μm VECSEL on Si substrate,” Electron Lett. (to be published).

Rattunde, M.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohr, J.

U. P. Schiessel and J. Rohr, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roither, J.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schiessel, U. P.

U. P. Schiessel and J. Rohr, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, N.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzl, T.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Khosravani and Z. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Springholz, G.

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

M. Tacke, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 359, 547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

A. C. Tropper and S. Hoogland, Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Z.

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F.

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zogg, H.

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahim and H. Zogg, “5μm VECSEL on Si substrate,” Electron Lett. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahim, M. Arnold, F. Felder, K. Behfar, and H. Zogg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Khosravani and Z. Shi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Fürst, H. Pascher, T. Schwarzl, M. Böberl, W. Heiss, G. Springholz, and G. Bauer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 208 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwarzl, G. Springholz, M. Böberl, E. Kaufmann, J. Roither, W. Heiss, J. Fürst, and H. Pascher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Z. Xu, F. Zhao, A. Majumdar, and Z. Shi, Electron. Lett. 39, 659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

U. P. Schiessel and J. Rohr, Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

A. C. Tropper, H. D. Foreman, A. Garnache, K. G. Wilcox, and S. H. Hoogland, J. Phys. D 37, R75 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

N. Schulz, J.-M. Hopkins, M. Rattunde, D. Burns, and J. Wagner, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A

M. Tacke, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 359, 547 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. C. Tropper and S. Hoogland, Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, Science 295, 301 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D.Khokhlov, ed., in Optoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors and Superlattices, Vol. 18, M. O. Manasreh, series ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Note that all VECSEL realized with III-V materials use stacks of QW for optimized performance.

M. Rahim and H. Zogg, “5μm VECSEL on Si substrate,” Electron Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the IV–VI VECSEL with the Al heat spreader. The two different gain structures (i) and (ii) are shown together with the optical intensity distribution at 5.3 μ m in wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light-in/light-out characteristics at 100 K for (a) pulsed and (b) cw excitation. The cw curves in (b) are nearly the same for both designs; the experimental points are from design (i).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser spectra: (a) multimode at higher pumping power, (b) monomode for pulsed low-power excitation or cw at 100 K , and (c) monomode at 165 K .

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