Abstract

A technique that determines the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) as well as extinction and backscatter coefficients from simultaneous downlooking and uplooking lidar measurements is described. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by applying the technique to data acquired by the cloud-aerosol lidar pathfinder satellite observation (CALIPSO) lidar measurements and ground-based lidar measurements made at Hampton University (37.02° N, 76.34° W).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Winker, W. Hunt, and M. McGill, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Young, Appl. Opt. 34, 7019 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 30, 6 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Appl. Phys. B 91, 639 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Wang, M. G. Frontoso, G. Pisani, and N. Spinelli, Opt. Express 15, 6734 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. P. McCormick, Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 89 (1995) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

S. Young, Appl. Opt. 34, 7019 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 30, 6 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cess, R. D.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlson, R.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coakley, J. A.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubovik, O.

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 30, 6 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Frontoso, M. G.

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 30, 6 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hales, J. M.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, W.

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D.

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmen, K.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, W.

D. Winker, W. Hunt, and M. McGill, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahmann, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

McCormick, M.

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, D. Wu, Z. Liu, and M. A. Vaughan, Appl. Opt. 47, 1478 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Appl. Phys. B 91, 639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 89 (1995) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

McGill, M.

D. Winker, W. Hunt, and M. McGill, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J.

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Omar, A.

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palm, S.

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pisani, G.

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, N.

Spinhirne, J.

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Z.

Vaughan, M. A.

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Weitkamp, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005).

Welton, E.

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winker, D.

D. Winker, W. Hunt, and M. McGill, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Won, J.

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Yoon, S.

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, and W. Michaelis, Appl. Phys. B 55, 18 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tao, M. P. McCormick, and D. Wu, Appl. Phys. B 91, 639 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

D. Winker, W. Hunt, and M. McGill, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L19803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Spinhirne, S. Palm, W. Hart, D. Hlavka, and E. Welton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

T. Anderson, R. Charlson, D. Winker, J. Ogren, and K. Holmen, J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

A. Omar, J. Won, D. Winker, S. Yoon, O. Dubovik, and M. McCormick, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S14 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

C. J. Grund and E. W. Eloranta, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 30, 6 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

M. P. McCormick, Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 89 (1995) (in Japanese).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. J. Charlson, S. E. Schwartz, J. M. Hales, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, J. E. Hansen, and D. J. Hofmann, Science 256, 598 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Weitkamp, Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Attenuated backscatter profiles measured by the CALIPSO lidar and reconstructed from the ground-based HU lidar measurement (a) at 14:19 local time on June 23, 2006 (the nearest distance between the CALIPSO ground track and the HU lidar is 80 km ) and (b) at 14:26 local time on July 16, 2006 (the nearest distance is 50 km ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retrieved backscatter coefficients from the data shown in Fig. 1a using the technique described in this Letter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Performance function P ( S 1 ) as a function of lidar ratio S 1 for the case shown in Fig. 1a. The solution for the lidar ratio is the value corresponding to the minimum of the performance function, which in this case is 42 sr .

Equations (8)

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X ( r ) = P ( r ) r 2 = C [ β 1 ( r ) + β 2 ( r ) ] T 2 ( r ) ,
T ( r ) = exp { 0 r [ α 1 ( r ) + α 2 ( r ) ] d r } ,
β ( r ) = [ β 1 ( r ) + β 2 ( r ) ] T 2 ( r ) .
T S ( z ) = exp { z z s [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } ,
T G ( z ) = exp { 0 z [ α 1 ( z ) + α 2 ( z ) ] d z } ,
X ( z ) = X S ( z ) X G ( z ) = C S C G [ β 1 ( z ) + β 2 ( z ) ] 2 T S 2 ( z ) T G 2 ( z ) = C [ β 1 ( z ) + β 2 ( z ) ] 2 ,
β 1 ( z ) = R ( z C ) β 2 ( z C ) X ( z ) X ( z C ) β 2 ( z ) ,
P ( S 1 ) = z = z 1 z = z c [ β 1 , S 1 ( z ) β 1 ( z ) ] 2 ,

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