Abstract

We describe a bidirectional color Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system capable of measuring absolute velocities of moving scatterers by illuminating the sample with two linearly and orthogonally polarized beams, incident at a known angle on the sample. The velocity calculation is independent of the exact orientation of the velocity vector in the detection plane. First measurements were performed on a rotating disk driven at well-defined velocities and tilted by various small angles. Our results indicate a high correlation between preset and calculated velocities (correlation coefficient 0.999) and the independency of these velocities from the tilting angle of the disk. We demonstrate that bidirectional color Doppler optical coherence tomography allows for the measurement of absolute blood flow values in vivo in human retinal vessels.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, Diabetologia 42, 387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1985 (1)

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

C. E. Riva, R. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936 (1972).
[PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Benedek, G. B.

C. E. Riva, R. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936 (1972).
[PubMed]

Berisha, F.

Bernary, V.

Bouma, B.

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

Davé, D. P.

de Boer, J.

Drexler, W.

Eberli, B.

Feke, G. T.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferrante, A. A.

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedmann, E.

E. Friedmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677 (1997).

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and K. O'Keefe, Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 121, 235 (2003).

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 23, 1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krieglstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Logean, E.

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

O'Keefe, K.

Orgül, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Pedersen, C. J.

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

Pierce, M.

Renard, J. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and K. O'Keefe, Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Bernary, Appl. Opt. 18, 2301 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Riva, R. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936 (1972).
[PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, Opt. Lett. 23, 506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 121, 235 (2003).

Ross, R.

C. E. Riva, R. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936 (1972).
[PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Serra, L.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shure, M. A.

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and K. O'Keefe, Appl. Opt. 20, 117 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefansson, E.

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Vu, D.

White, B.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolzt, M.

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, Diabetologia 42, 387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 121, 235 (2003).

M. D. Kulkarni, T. G. van Leeuwen, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 23, 1057 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, R. J.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Friedmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677 (1997).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 121, 235 (2003).

Diabetologia (1)

L. Schmetterer and M. Wolzt, Diabetologia 42, 387 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. E. Riva, R. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 936 (1972).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 26, 1124 (1985).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Prog. Retin Eye Res. (1)

J. Flammer, S. Orgül, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. Serra, J. P. Renard, and E. Stefansson, Prog. Retin Eye Res. 21, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: SLD, super luminescent diode; PC, polarization controller; FC, fiber couplers; M, mirror; L1 and L2, relay lenses; BD, beam displacer; ND, neutral density filter; BS, beam splitter cube; PBS, polarizing beam splitter cube; DG, diffraction grating; CL, camera lens. (b) Geometry of bidirectional velocity measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Estimation of disk velocity using the dual-beam technique. Solid line, line fit. Dashed line, unity slope. (b) Estimated velocity for three different disk velocities and incident angle between 5 ° and + 5 ° (dashed lines, preset velocities).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase tomograms of human retina in vivo, (a) ch0 and (b) ch1. Average data of five vessel center profiles of the (c) left and the (d) right vessels and calculated velocities for (e), (f) both vessels. Dashed curves, parable fit.

Equations (2)

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Φ 1 = 2 K 1 v τ , Φ 2 = 2 K 2 v τ ,
Δ Φ = Φ 1 Φ 2 = 4 π n v τ Δ α cos β λ ,

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