Abstract

We present the results of optical characterization of metal V-groove waveguides using scanning near-field microscopy, showing broadband transmission with subwavelength confinement and propagation lengths exceeding 100μm. An updated fabrication method using a combination of UV and nanoimprint lithography is presented. The developed approach is mass-production compatible, adaptable to different designs, and offers wafer-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components based on profiled metal surfaces.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chai and J. Klein, Langmuir 23, 7777 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borrisé, X.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 14, 4494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Opt. Lett. 31, 3447 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chai, L.

L. Chai and J. Klein, Langmuir 23, 7777 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 14, 4494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 14, 4494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez-Cuesta, I.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, J.

L. Chai and J. Klein, Langmuir 23, 7777 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuo, S.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Opt. Lett. 31, 3447 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, R. B.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, I. V.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Murano, F.

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Opt. Lett. 31, 3447 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Opt. Express 14, 4494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

I. Fernandez-Cuesta, R. B. Nielsen, A. Boltasseva, X. Borrisé, F. Pérez-Murano, and A. Kristensen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

L. Chai and J. Klein, Langmuir 23, 7777 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, 1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fabrication principle: starting with a silicon stamp (a), which is imprinted into a PMMA layer on a silicon carrier wafer (b), resulting in a negative copy of the stamp (c). After imprinting, 200 nm of gold is deposited on the PMMA layer (d), followed by deposition and UV curing of Ormocomp (e), and finally the PMMA layer is dissolved in acetone, releasing the plasmonic components (f).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the fabricated plasmonic devices, showing a (a) single groove seen from above and (b) tilted looking at the end, as well as [(c),(d)] two overview images of the entire device. The H-like structure of waveguides allows easy fiber access from either side and contains 29 V grooves with the same width and depth but varying lengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical microscope images of (a) the coupling arrangement (the tapered fiber is seen to the left and the illuminated groove to the right) and (b) the track of radiation propagating ( λ 1525 nm ) along 3.8 - μ m -wide and 400 - μ m -long oxidized V groove (from left to right). Pseudo-color [(c), (e)] topographical and [(d), (f)] near-field optical images taken with the V groove at λ ( d ) 1525 (the CPP propagates rightward) and (f) 1500 nm (the CPP propagates upward).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the topographical (asterisks) and near-field optical (filled and open circles) images of Fig. 3 [Figs. 3d, 3e, 3f, respectively] averaged along ten lines along the propagation direction or perpendicular to it. The exponential dependence fitted by the least-square method to the signal dependence along the propagation direction is also shown.

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