Abstract

We studied both numerically and experimentally a birefringence in a microstructure fiber with elliptical inclusion highly doped with GeO2. We demonstrate that such inclusion increases the phase modal birefringence and modifies its dispersion in the short wavelength range, thus causing that group birefringence crosses zero value at a certain wavelength. Moreover, we numerically analyzed different factors contributing to the overall fiber birefringence, including geometrical birefringence induced by holes distribution and ellipticity of the inclusion as well as stress birefringence associated with thermal shrinkage of the doped glass.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, Appl. Opt. 40, 1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, and M. Fujita, Opt. Express 9, 676 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

R. B. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides (Artech House, 1995).

Arriaga, J.

Bao, X.

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berghams, F.

Berghmans, F.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chah, K.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Couderc, V.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides (Artech House, 1995).

Folkenberg, J. R.

Fujita, M.

Gebhardt, A.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, S.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, C.

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

Kawanishi, S.

Kirchhof, J.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klimek, J.

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Kubota, H.

Leproux, Ph.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li., Y.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Makara, M.

Mangan, B. J.

Martynkien, T.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. D.

Olszewski, J.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Poturaj, K.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rothhardt, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Saitoh, K.

Schuster, K.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

Suzuki, K.

Szpulak, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchida, Y.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghams, and H. Thienpont, Appl. Opt. 44, 2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, Appl. Opt. 40, 1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Z.

Wojcik, J.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

Xue, L.

Zhang, C.

Zou, L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, S. Grimm, A. Schwuchow, J. Kirchhof, H. Bartelt, A. Gebhardt, Ph. Leproux, V. Couderc, and W. Urbanczyk, Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 1057 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. B. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides (Artech House, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of the five air ring germanium doped MOF (inset) and refractive index profile of the germanium doped inclusion measured at λ = 633 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Registered spectrogram proving that group modal birefringence changes its sign at λ = 880 nm . The length of the measured fiber sample is L = 1.457 m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of simulations of phase ( B ) and group ( G ) modal birefringence. Geometrical birefringence induced by the holes microstructure (coarse dashed curve), geometrical birefringence induced by holes microstructure and ellipticity of the inclusions (fine dashed curve), and overall birefringence including the stress contribution (solid curve). Black dots indicate the experimental results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) SEM images of the investigated MOF obtained after etching the fiber cleave to better visualize edges of the inclusion, (c) fiber structure reproduced from SEM images used in numerical simulations, and (d) calculated distribution of material birefringence Δ n y y Δ n x x induced by thermal stress.

Equations (1)

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G = λ 2 Δ λ L ,

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