Abstract

We have investigated the formation of nanogratings induced by femtosecond laser pulses on the surface of silica glass blocks. The nanograting period ranges between 170and340nm, depending on the pulse-to-pulse spacing, whereas for a given spacing the period remains constant upon changing the laser pulse energy. Intensity clamping is proposed as the mechanism that is responsible for such independence of the grating period from pulse energy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. J. Brueck and D. J. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1678 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 56 (2003).
  18. J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 56 (2003).

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck and D. J. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. R. J. Brueck and D. J. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 56 (2003).

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, D. J.

S. R. J. Brueck and D. J. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Emmony, D. C.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, A.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howson, R. P.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kreutz, E. W.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 56 (2003).

Luo, Q.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willis, L. J.

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 76, 215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, F. Théberge, and W. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 86, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Wang and C. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Emmony, R. P. Howson, and L. J. Willis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 8576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. A. Temple and M. J. Soileau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Birnbaum, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

G. Zhou, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. J. Brueck and D. J. Ehrlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1678 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical SEM pictures of nanograting on silica glass. The incident laser polarizations were (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the writing direction, respectively. The pulse-to-pulse spacing and pulse energy were set to 60 nm and 300 nJ , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nanograting period vs. pulse-to-pulse spacing. In Reg.III, the period of the modifications is directly related to pulse-to-pulse spacing (diagonal line), instead of nanograting formation. The inset is a typical SEM image of the modification zone at pulse-to-pulse spacing of 1200 nm . The pulse energy was set to 300 nJ .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nanograting period versus pulse energy. The pulse-to-pulse spacing was set to 40 nm .

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