Abstract

Experimental demonstrations of metamaterials with negative index of refraction have been limited to microwave and IR frequencies. In this work, a freestanding multilayer thin-film metamaterial showing a strong negative index of refraction at terahertz frequencies is fabricated and characterized. The metamaterial consists of periodically arranged H-shaped wire-pair resonant structures separated by a 14.5-μm-thick and enclosed between two 26-μm-thick layers of benzocyclobutene polymer. Complex reflection and transmission parameters of the metamaterial are measured via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and are used for the extraction of refractive material properties. Our results show good agreement with finite element field simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Gundogdu, N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, R. Penciu, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, E. Economou, and C. Soukoulis, Opt. Express 16, 9173 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

T. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Taylor, R. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. Padilla, Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 634 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. Penciu, T. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. Economou, T. Koschny and C. Soukoulis, Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alexopoulos, N.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R.

T. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Taylor, R. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. Padilla, Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A.

Bolivar, P.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

Contopanagos, H.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gundogdu, T.

Highstrete, C.

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Katsarakis, N.

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

Koschny, Th.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostopoulos, A.

Kurz, H.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kyriazidou, C.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

Malloy, K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Merril, W.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Hara, J.

Osgood, R.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W.

T. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Taylor, R. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. Padilla, Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellemans, H.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuring, D.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).

Smith, D. R.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C.

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

T. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Taylor, R. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. Padilla, Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).

Nature (1)

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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