Abstract

Experimental demonstrations of metamaterials with negative index of refraction have been limited to microwave and IR frequencies. In this work, a freestanding multilayer thin-film metamaterial showing a strong negative index of refraction at terahertz frequencies is fabricated and characterized. The metamaterial consists of periodically arranged H-shaped wire-pair resonant structures separated by a 14.5-μm-thick and enclosed between two 26-μm-thick layers of benzocyclobutene polymer. Complex reflection and transmission parameters of the metamaterial are measured via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and are used for the extraction of refractive material properties. Our results show good agreement with finite element field simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

T. Chen, J. O'Hara, A. Taylor, R. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. Padilla, Opt. Express 15, 1084 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 31, 634 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. Penciu, T. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. Economou, T. Koschny and C. Soukoulis, Opt. Lett. 30, 1348 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexopoulos, N.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R.

Azad, A.

Bolivar, P.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Contopanagos, H.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Debus, C.

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundogdu, T.

Highstrete, C.

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

Katsarakis, N.

Konstantinidis, G.

Koschny, T.

Koschny, Th.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostopoulos, A.

Kurz, H.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kyriazidou, C.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

Malloy, K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merril, W.

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Hara, J.

Osgood, R.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W.

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellemans, H.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penciu, R.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuring, D.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C.

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A.

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J.

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Schuring, J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Debus and P. H. Bolivar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 184102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

C. Kyriazidou, H. Contopanagos, W. Merril, and N. Alexopoulos, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 48, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Chen, W. Padilla, J. Zide, A. Gossard, A. Taylor, and R. Averitt, Nature 444, 597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Saxler, J. Rivas, C. Janke, H. Pellemans, P. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. Panoiu, K. Malloy, R. Osgood, and S. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view of unit cell with dimensions, (b) front view, (c) micrograph of the processed NIM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup showing detector positions, PS 11 and PS 21 THz signal. w 0 indicates the position of the frequency-independent beam waist and the sample position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnitude of S 11 (black) and S 21 (gray) for measurement (solid curves), simulation lossy (dashed curves) and simulation ideal lossless case (dotted curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) real part of the permittivity (black curves) and permeability (gray curves). (b) Real (black) and imaginary (gray) part of the complex index of refraction for measurement (solid curves) and simulation (dashed curves). (c) FOM for measurement (solid curve) and simulation (dotted curve).

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