Abstract

We report a compact high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) interrogator system designed to measure the relative wavelength spacing between two individual resonances of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) refractometer. The TFBG refractometer benefits from an internal wavelength and power reference provided by the core mode reflection resonance that can be used to determine cladding mode perturbations with high accuracy. The AWG interrogator is a planar waveguide device fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator platform, having 50 channels with a 0.18nm wavelength separation and a footprint of 8mm×8mm. By overlaying two adjacent interference orders of the AWG we demonstrate simultaneous monitoring of two widely separated resonances in real time with high wavelength resolution. The standard deviation of the measured wavelength shifts is 1.2 pm, and it is limited by the resolution of the optical spectrum analyzer used for the interrogator calibration measurements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Dragone, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 479 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Cheben, in Optical Waveguides: From Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.
  5. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).
  8. P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. High resolution swept laser interrogator, Model Si720, from Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.
  13. Reichert Analytical Instruments, http://www.reichertai. com/files/applications/1039637372.PDF.
  14. D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

2007 (2)

2004 (2)

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Zhang, and C. P. Grover, Opt. Lett. 29, 2222 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. Sano and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).

1991 (1)

C. Dragone, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Dragone, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 479 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. K. Smit, Electron. Lett. 24, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Chan, C.-F.

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, in Optical Waveguides: From Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Chen, C.

Delâge, A.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Densmore, A.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 479 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dziuda, L.

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

Hirayama, N.

Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).

Jafari, A.

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Laronche, A.

Lopinski, G.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Lu, Z. G.

McDonald, J. R.

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mischki, T.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Niewczas, P.

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Sano, Y.

Y. Sano and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).

Schmid, J. H.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit, Electron. Lett. 24, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Storey, C.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Sun, F. G.

Thomson, D. J.

Waldron, P.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Willshire, A. J.

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G. Z.

Xu, D.-X.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

Yoshino, T.

Y. Sano and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. K. Smit, Electron. Lett. 24, 385 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Dragone, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

P. Niewczas, A. J. Willshire, L. Dziuda, and J. R. McDonald, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 1192 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, Proc. SPIE 5117, 147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sano, N. Hirayama, and T. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 4185, 788 (2000).

Other (4)

P. Cheben, in Optical Waveguides: From Theory to Applied Technologies, M.L.Calvo and V.Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC, 2007), Chap. 5.

High resolution swept laser interrogator, Model Si720, from Micron Optics, Inc., Atlanta, Ga.

Reichert Analytical Instruments, http://www.reichertai. com/files/applications/1039637372.PDF.

D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, P. Waldron, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, P. Cheben, E. Post, and J. H. Schmid, and C. Storey, in IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuQ2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, High-resolution SOI AWG sensor interrogator. Light from a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source is coupled to a TFBG sensor. TFBG and cladding mode resonance wavelengths are measured by the AWG with the output waveguides coupled to a photodetector array. b, Light intensities and their logarithmic ratio for two adjacent AWG channels as a function of Bragg resonance wavelength shift.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured TFBG transmission spectrum. The AWG channels used to monitor the cladding, and the Bragg mode resonances are indicated by the shaded areas.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured differential wavelength shift between the cladding and the Bragg modes and the corresponding standard deviation data as a function of the sucrose solution refractive index.

Equations (1)

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κ ( δ λ ) = ln I k + 1 I k ,

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