Abstract

The effective imaging range of Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography is limited by falloff. We present a very simple method to extend the effective imaging range with dual reference arms and a high-speed fiber optic switch. The effective imaging range was increased by 1.8 with two reference arms compared with a single reference arm. Ex vivo tissue images show significantly improved sensitivity over a large imaging range. Further extension of the imaging range is feasible with multiple reference arms. The tradeoff between image acquisition rate and imaging range is discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (6)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

An, L.

Aretz, H. T.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardenstein, D.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Baumann, B.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, B. J. Vakoc, A. E. Desjardins, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 32, 2768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

de Boer, J.

Desjardins, A. E.

Fercher, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gözinger, E.

Halpern, E. F.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Houser, S. L.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I.-K.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Kang, D.-H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Michaely, R.

Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.

Nassif, N.

Pan, Y.

Park, B.

Pierce, M.

Pircher, M.

Radhakrishnan, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Rollins, A.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Rollins, A. M.

Roth, J.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Schlendorf, K. H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekhar, S. C.

Shishkov, M.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, B. J. Vakoc, A. E. Desjardins, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 32, 2768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

Wang, R. K.

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Wojtkowski, M.

Yabushita, H.

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Yun, S.-H.

Zhao, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (1)

S. Radhakrishnan, A. Rollins, J. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. Bardenstein, and J. Izatt, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 119, 1179 (2001).

Circulation (1)

H. Yabushita, B. E. Bouma, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, D.-H. Kang, E. F. Halpern, and G. J. Tearney, Circulation 106, 1640 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement setup with an SDOCT. Two reference arms with mirrors (M1 and M2) were separated by a distance of δ x and alternately accessed by a high-speed fiber switch (SW). FC, fiber coupler; Cir, fiber circulator; Ga, galvanometer; PDA, InGaAs photodetector linear array; SLED, superluminescent diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Method of image fusion. The thin dashed line represents the dc line that is located at the middle of the images. The maximum sensitivity (bright background) is shown around the dc and then fades (gray background) due to falloff. The upper part of (a) within the thick dashed-line region of interest was concatenated with the lower part of (b) within the region of interest to form the final image (c); δ x is the offset between the two reference arms. The 6 dB effective imaging range is labeled in each image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured sensitivity of the SDOCT system with both separated reference arms. The effective imaging range is defined as the depth range within 6 dB of the peak of sensitivity and is indicated in the figure along with the effective imaging range of the demonstrated range-extended system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of dog endocrinal tissue ex vivo. (a) and (b) Images recorded alternately with the two separated reference arms (M1 and M2). The image size is 1000   pixels   ( width ) × 677   pixels (height). The faint horizontal lines shown in the images are the residual dc lines. (c) Fused image resulting from (a) and (b). (d) Average of 40 neighboring A-scans at the location marked by the arrows in (a) and (b) demonstrating the advantage of the range extension.

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