Abstract

The cyanonitrene radical, NCN, is detected by laser-induced fluorescence in laminar, adiabatic, flat ϕ=1.3 methane–air flames at 200hPa and atmospheric pressure. Laser excitation of the ÃΠu3(020)X̃Σg3(000) band at 317nm allows off-resonant fluorescence to be detected at 326nm. Excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectra are presented, as well as profiles of NCN and CH versus height above burner.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. P. Fenimore, Proc. Combust. Inst. 13, 373 (1971).
  2. L. V. Moskaleva and M. C. Lin, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2393 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Sutton and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 154, 630 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Konnov, “Implementation of the NCN pathway of prompt-NO formation in the detailed reaction mechanism” (submitted to Combust. Flame).
  6. B. A. Williams and J. W. Fleming, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Herzberg and D. N. Travis, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1658 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. R. Jennings and J. W. Linnett, Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 1737 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. M. Bulewicz, Proc. Combust. Inst. 12, 957 (1969).
  14. J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 541 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. J. Bosschaart and L. P. H. de Goey, Combust. Flame 132, 170 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation, Tech. Rep. MP 99-009, SRI International (1999) (version 2.0.60, 2008), http://www.sri.com/psd/lifbase/.

2009

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

2008

J. A. Sutton and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 154, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. A. Williams and J. W. Fleming, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. J. Bosschaart and L. P. H. de Goey, Combust. Flame 132, 170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. V. Moskaleva and M. C. Lin, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1971

C. P. Fenimore, Proc. Combust. Inst. 13, 373 (1971).

1970

H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. M. Bulewicz, Proc. Combust. Inst. 12, 957 (1969).

1964

G. Herzberg and D. N. Travis, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1658 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1960

K. R. Jennings and J. W. Linnett, Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 1737 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Barker, E. S.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beaton, S. A.

S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosschaart, K. J.

K. J. Bosschaart and L. P. H. de Goey, Combust. Flame 132, 170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, C. T.

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. M.

S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bulewicz, E. M.

E. M. Bulewicz, Proc. Combust. Inst. 12, 957 (1969).

Cochran, A. L.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cochran, W. D.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, R. A.

G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crosley, D. R.

G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation, Tech. Rep. MP 99-009, SRI International (1999) (version 2.0.60, 2008), http://www.sri.com/psd/lifbase/.

da Costa, I.

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, D. F.

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Goey, L. P. H.

K. J. Bosschaart and L. P. H. de Goey, Combust. Flame 132, 170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desgroux, P.

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El bakali, A.

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fenimore, C. P.

C. P. Fenimore, Proc. Combust. Inst. 13, 373 (1971).

Fleming, J. W.

J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sutton and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 154, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Williams and J. W. Fleming, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gasnot, L.

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, S.

S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golden, D. M.

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, R. K.

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg and D. N. Travis, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1658 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, K. R.

K. R. Jennings and J. W. Linnett, Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 1737 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Konnov, A. A.

A. A. Konnov, “Implementation of the NCN pathway of prompt-NO formation in the detailed reaction mechanism” (submitted to Combust. Flame).

Kroto, H. W.

H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lamoureux, N.

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

Lefort, B.

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levinsky, H. B.

S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. C.

L. V. Moskaleva and M. C. Lin, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Linnett, J. W.

K. R. Jennings and J. W. Linnett, Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 1737 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Luque, J.

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation, Tech. Rep. MP 99-009, SRI International (1999) (version 2.0.60, 2008), http://www.sri.com/psd/lifbase/.

Mercier, X.

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

Mokhov, A. V.

S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, T. F.

H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Moskaleva, L. V.

L. V. Moskaleva and M. C. Lin, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O'Dell, C. R.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opal, C. B.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pauwels, J. F.

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pillier, L.

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheena, H. H.

H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

G. P. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, J. A.

J. A. Sutton and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 154, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Travis, D. N.

G. Herzberg and D. N. Travis, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1658 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valk, J. H.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasudevan, V.

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Western, C.

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. A.

J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Williams and J. W. Fleming, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

J. H. Valk, C. R. O'Dell, A. L. Cochran, W. D. Cochran, C. B. Opal, and E. S. Barker, Astrophys. J. 388, 621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

G. Herzberg and D. N. Travis, Can. J. Phys. 42, 1658 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. P. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 367, 541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

J. A. Sutton, B. A. Williams, and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 153, 465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gersen, A. V. Mokhov, and H. B. Levinsky, Combust. Flame 155, 267 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sutton and J. W. Fleming, Combust. Flame 154, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Bosschaart and L. P. H. de Goey, Combust. Flame 132, 170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuel

A. El bakali, L. Pillier, P. Desgroux, B. Lefort, L. Gasnot, J. F. Pauwels, and I. da Costa, Fuel 85, 896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. P. Smith, R. A. Copeland, and D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1987 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

S. A. Beaton, Y. Ito, and J. M. Brown, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 178, 99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

V. Vasudevan, R. K. Hanson, C. T. Bowman, D. M. Golden, and D. F. Davidson, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 11818 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Combust. Inst.

E. M. Bulewicz, Proc. Combust. Inst. 12, 957 (1969).

N. Lamoureux, X. Mercier, C. Western, J. F. Pauwels, and P. Desgroux, Proc. Combust. Inst. 32 (2009), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.043.
[CrossRef]

B. A. Williams and J. W. Fleming, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 1109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Fenimore, Proc. Combust. Inst. 13, 373 (1971).

L. V. Moskaleva and M. C. Lin, Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 2393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc.

H. W. Kroto, T. F. Morgan, and H. H. Sheena, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Jennings and J. W. Linnett, Trans. Faraday Soc. 56, 1737 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Konnov, “Implementation of the NCN pathway of prompt-NO formation in the detailed reaction mechanism” (submitted to Combust. Flame).

J. Luque and D. R. Crosley, LIFBASE: Database and Spectral Simulation, Tech. Rep. MP 99-009, SRI International (1999) (version 2.0.60, 2008), http://www.sri.com/psd/lifbase/.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Excitation–dispersion spectrum, recorded at the flame front. LIF features originating from NCN, CH, and OH are identified: NCN and P 2 Q 1 OH are explained in Fig. 2; a = P 12 ( 15 ) (0,0) OH, b / c = Q 1 Q 2 ( 21 ) (1,1) CH ( λ disp = 322.7 nm for a–c). Low intensities are enhanced in a nonlinear way (detector saturated near laser wavelength).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation spectrum of the NCN A ̃ Π u 3 ( 020 ) X ̃ Σ g 3 ( 000 ) band head.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of dispersed fluorescence following excitation of the A ̃ X ̃ (020)–(000) head (two spectra at each pressure, vertical offset between pressures for clarity; detector saturated for λ disp 320 nm ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NCN and CH LIF signal versus h a b in the 200 hPa flame. Gaussian fits guide the eye.

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