Abstract

We investigate the dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in a colloidal liquid that was employed to construct an all-optical switch. It is revealed that the switching-on process can be characterized by the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, while the switching-off process can be described by a steady state followed by a single exponential decay. The phase transition times exhibit a strong dependence on trapping power. With an increasing trapping power, while the switching-on time decreases rapidly, the switch-off time increases significantly, indicating the effects of optical binding and van der Waals force on the lifetime of the optical matter.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. See, for example, D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Mellor, T. A. Fennerty, and C. D. Bain, Opt. Express 14, 10079 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K.Inoue and K.Ohtaka, eds., Photonic Crystals: Physics, Fabrication, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  9. See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

See, for example, D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1958 (1)

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. W.

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Bain, C. D.

Bartal, G.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Burns, M. M.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carruthers, A. E.

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Dai, Q.-F.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fennerty, T. A.

Fishman, S.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, J.-M.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, A. V.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

See, for example, D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.-G.

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-S.

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-Y.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-H.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mellor, C. D.

Meng, Z.-M.

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Righini, R.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, T.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarkova, S. A.

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trofimov, V. A.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-J.

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.-B.

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zelenina, A. S.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H.-Y. Liu, S. Lan, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S.-H. Liu, X.-S. Lin, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 213507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q.-F. Dai, H.-Y. Liu, J. Liu, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X.-B. Yang, S.-H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q.-F. Dai, Z.-M. Meng, X.-G. Huang, L.-J. Wu, Q. Guo, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

See, for example, D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, Nature 390, 671 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, Nature 446, 52 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. A. Tatarkova, A. E. Carruthers, and K. Dholakia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Science 249, 749 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K.Inoue and K.Ohtaka, eds., Photonic Crystals: Physics, Fabrication, and Applications (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the all-optical switch used to study the dynamics of the phase transition between a disordered state and an ordered one induced by optical trapping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Static distributions of PS spheres in capillaries induced by laser beams at different powers. (a) P t = 0 , (b) P t = 100 , (c) P t = 200 , (d) P t = 300 , (e) P t = 600 , and (f) P t = 900 mW . The spot size of the trapping light, the path of the signal light, and the length scale are shown in image (e).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Switching-on process is shown under different trapping powers. The symbols are experimental data, while the solid curves are fits to the data. (b) Trapping power dependence of the two time constants ( t r 0 and t r 1 ) that characterize the phase transition from a disordered state to an ordered one.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Switching-off process is shown under different trapping powers. The symbols are experimental data, while the solid curves are fits to the data. (b) Trapping power dependence of the two time constants ( t d 0 and t d 1 ) that characterize the phase transition from an ordered state to a disordered one.

Equations (1)

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I ( t ) = I ON 1 + exp [ ( t t 0 t r 0 ) t r 1 ] ,

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