Abstract

An approach to enhancing the light collection from fluorescence emitters bound on the surface of a biochip is presented. It is based on the integration of diffractive optical elements on the underside of the chip that are essentially thick volume holograms written into a layer of photopolymer recording material. The high diffractive efficiency and angular selectivity of these types of diffractive elements make them very effective collectors of the spatially anisotropic light emitted by surface-bound fluorophores. The holographic lithography setup used to fabricate the diffractive elements is described. Results obtained using both a focused laser and light from a fluorescence spot to characterize the performance of the diffractive optical elements are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).
  3. H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

2008

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Baldini, F.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blue, R.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Carloni, A.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chevolot, Y.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Cloarec, J.-P.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Eichler, H. J.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enderlein, J.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feely, C. A.

Frohmann, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giannetti, A.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, D.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamrle, J.

Howard, R. G.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jallapuram, R.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kent, N.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krogmeier, J. R.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, J. W.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurenceau, E.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

MacCraith, B. D.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McEvoy, H.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morris, T. S.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orlic, S.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pawlak, M.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phaner-Goutorbe, M.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Polerecký, L.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ľ. Polerecký, J. Hamrle, and B. D. MacCraith, Appl. Opt. 39, 3968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porro, G.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckstuhl, T.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, I.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeger, S.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Enderlein, T. Ruckstuhl, and S. Seeger, Appl. Opt. 38, 724 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seward, G.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souteyrand, E.

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Stuart, H.

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Martin, C. A. Feely, and V. Toal, Appl. Opt. 36, 5757 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trono, C.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinberger, S. R.

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yantz, G. R.

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

F. Baldini, A. Carloni, A. Giannetti, G. Porro, and C. Trono, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 391, 1837 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

T. Ruckstuhl, J. Enderlein, S. Jung, and S. Seeger, Anal. Chem. 72, 2117 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

R. Blue, N. Kent, Ľ. Polerecký, H. McEvoy, D. Gray, and B. D. MacCraith, Electron. Lett. 41, 682 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ITBM-RBM

J.-P. Cloarec, Y. Chevolot, E. Laurenceau, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and E. Souteyrand, ITBM-RBM 29, 105 (2008).

Lab Chip

J. R. Krogmeier, I. Schaefer, G. Seward, G. R. Yantz, and J. W. Larson, Lab Chip 7, 1767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

R. Jallapuram, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. G. Howard, V. Toal, S. Frohmann, S. Orlic, and H. J. Eichler, Opt. Mater. 28, 1329 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pharmacogenomics

S. R. Weinberger, T. S. Morris, and M. Pawlak, Pharmacogenomics 1, 395 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Stuart and D. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup used for HDOE recording. Top: BE—beam expander; BS—beam splitter; M—mirrors; BC—beam coupler. Bottom: detail of the optical set composed of a half-ball lens ( R = 5 mm ) , separating glass block ( 4 mm thickness), and glass chip with HDOE layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left side: diffraction efficiency of a holographic phase grating ( 2650   lines mm ) as a function of angular detuning from the Bragg angle, measured by the 532 nm laser. Right side: spectrum of the diffracted white light, incident on the same grating under the Bragg angle for 532 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of surface-bound fluorescence imaged by HDOE on a CCD array. Fluorescence was excited by a blue laser ( 404 nm ) , that was focused to the dye deposited on the chip; beam waist size was < 10 μ m . The dimensions of the CCD pictures are 3 × 3 mm . Measured for different offsets of the chip from the centered position. The graphs above show the horizontal cuttings of the CCD pictures approximately in the middle. The upper sketches are not to scale.

Metrics