Abstract

We report experimental evidence that in an amplitude-modulated laser optical radar system for underwater 3D imaging the observed contrast oscillations as a function of the modulation frequency originate from an interferencelike effect between target signal V̂T and water backscattered radiation V̂W. The demonstration relies on the ability to perform a direct measurement of V̂W in a 25m long test tank. The proposed data processing method enables one to remove the contribution of water backscattering from the detected signal and drastically reduce signal fluctuations due to the medium. Experiments also confirm the possibility to improve the signal to optical noise ratio and contrast by increasing the modulation frequency.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

Bartolini, L.

Berrocal, E.

Cariou, J.

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Concannon, B.

Contarino, V. M.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

De Dominicis, L.

Ferri de Collibus, M.

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Appl. Opt. 44, 7130 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fornetti, G.

Francucci, M.

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Opt. Lett. 32, 1402 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

Gilbert, G. D.

Guarneri, M.

Guern, Y.

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

Herczfeld, P. R.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

Katsev, I. L.

Laux, A.

Le Brun, G.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Le Jeune, B.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Linne, M. A.

Lotrian, J.

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

Meglinski, I. V.

Mullen, L.

L. Mullen, A. Laux, B. Concannon, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, and A. S. Prikhach, Appl. Opt. 43, 3874 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

Olivard, P.

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paciaroni, M. E.

Paglia, E.

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Appl. Opt. 44, 7130 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellen, F.

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pernicka, J. C.

Poggi, C.

Prikhach, A. S.

Ricci, R.

Sedarsky, D. L.

Vieira, A. J. C.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

F. Pellen, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 34, 1122 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup. PMT is the photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

V (a.u.), R, C (Solid curve with filled squares), V T (a.u.), R and C (open triangles) versus f m when z = 5.25 m , k = 0.66 m 1 , η 0.6 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

R, C (Solid curve with filled squares), R and C (open triangles) versus f m when z = 3.5 m , k = 0.66 m 1 , η 0.08 .

Equations (3)

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Φ = arctan ( sin Φ T + η sin Φ W cos Φ T + η cos Φ W ) .
V T = V 1 + η 2 2 η cos Δ Φ ,
Φ T = arctan ( sin Φ η sin Φ W cos Φ η cos Φ W ) ,

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