Abstract

We demonstrate en face swept source optical coherence tomography (ss-OCT) without requiring a Fourier transformation step. The electronic optical coherence tomography (OCT) interference signal from a k-space linear Fourier domain mode-locked laser is mixed with an adjustable local oscillator, yielding the analytic reflectance signal from one image depth for each frequency sweep of the laser. Furthermore, a method for arbitrarily shaping the spectral intensity profile of the laser is presented, without requiring the step of numerical apodization. In combination, these two techniques enable sampling of the in-phase and quadrature signal with a slow analog-to-digital converter and allow for real-time display of en face projections even for highest axial scan rates. Image data generated with this technique is compared to en face images extracted from a three-dimensional OCT data set. This technique can allow for real-time visualization of arbitrarily oriented en face planes for the purpose of alignment, registration, or operator-guided survey scans while simultaneously maintaining the full capability of high-speed volumetric ss-OCT functionality.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Beaurepaire, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, L. Blanchot, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 23, 244 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Gotzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, Opt. Lett. 31, 1821 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  6. G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 3159 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 14, 3225 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 31, 2975 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Express 13, 444 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 15, 6210 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, G. Palte, and R. Huber, Opt. Express 16, 8916 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 1083 (2005).
  18. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. W. Huang, A. D. Aguirre, R. A. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Express 15, 6210 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2003 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Aguirre, A. D.

Baumann, B.

Beaurepaire, E.

Biedermann, B. R.

Blanchot, L.

Boccara, A. C.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 1083 (2005).

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 11, 2183 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Culverhouse, D. O.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. M.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 1083 (2005).

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gotzinger, E.

Gregori, G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. W.

Huang, X. R.

Huber, R.

Huber, R. A.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiao, S. L.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kim, B. Y.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, R.

Lebec, M.

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Owen, G. M.

Palte, G.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

S. L. Jiao, R. Knighton, X. R. Huang, G. Gregori, and C. A. Puliafito, Opt. Express 13, 444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schmitt, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yun, S. H.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 30, 3159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, and H. Sattmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113 (1993).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 1083 (2005).

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Photonics 1, 709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Setup of the FDML laser. (B) ss-OCT/OCM setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Spectral laser output, unshaped (ns), Welch shaped (w), and Hanning shaped (h). (B) Corresponding PSFs in OCT setup at 0.75 mm depth. (C) Corresponding fringe signals. Insets show applied current.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured roll-off for a Hanning shaped spectrum in the frequency range of 20 to 60 MHz , corresponding to imaging depths of 0.75 to 2.00 mm (average over 100 measurements).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) En face image of a grape generated from a volumetric 3D data set. (B) En face image at the same position, generated with hardware demodulation.

Metrics