Abstract

To harness the full spectrum of solar energy, Fresnel reflection at the surface of a solar cell must be eliminated over the entire solar spectrum and at all angles. Here, we show that a multilayer nanostructure having a graded-index profile, as predicted by theory [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 515 (1976) ; Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007) ], can accomplish a near-perfect transmission of all-color of sunlight. An ultralow total reflectance of 1%–6% has been achieved over a broad spectrum, λ=400to1600nm, and a wide range of angles of incidence, θ=0°60°. The measured angle- and wavelength-averaged total reflectance of 3.79% is the smallest ever reported in the literature, to our knowledge.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

2006

V. M. Aroutiounuian, Kh. Martirosyan, and P. Soukiassian, J. Phys. D 39, 1623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1999

1996

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

1983

1976

Aroutiounuian, V. M.

V. M. Aroutiounuian, Kh. Martirosyan, and P. Soukiassian, J. Phys. D 39, 1623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, Appl. Opt. 42, 4573 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. S. P.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

Chang, H.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

Chang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

Fowles, G. R.

G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover, 1975), pp. 99-100.

George, N.

Hane, K.

Hsu, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Kennedy, S. R.

Kim, J.

Lakhtakia, A.

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li and L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

Z. Li and L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

Madelung, O.

R. Poerschke and O. Madelung, Semiconductors Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds: Data in Science and Technology (Springer, 1991), pp. 12-13.

Martirosyan, Kh.

V. M. Aroutiounuian, Kh. Martirosyan, and P. Soukiassian, J. Phys. D 39, 1623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Minot, M. J.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid (Academic, 1998), pp. 547-569.

Pan, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poerschke, R.

R. Poerschke and O. Madelung, Semiconductors Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds: Data in Science and Technology (Springer, 1991), pp. 12-13.

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schubert, E. F.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirley, L. G.

Soukiassian, P.

V. M. Aroutiounuian, Kh. Martirosyan, and P. Soukiassian, J. Phys. D 39, 1623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Xi, J.-Q.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

J.-Q. Xi, J. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. Ye, T.-M. Lu, and S. Lin, Opt. Lett. 31, 601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, D.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D

V. M. Aroutiounuian, Kh. Martirosyan, and P. Soukiassian, J. Phys. D 39, 1623 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

Z. Li and L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 046607 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Poerschke and O. Madelung, Semiconductors Group IV Elements and III-V Compounds: Data in Science and Technology (Springer, 1991), pp. 12-13.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid (Academic, 1998), pp. 547-569.

G. R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover, 1975), pp. 99-100.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning-electron-micrograph image of a seven-layer, graded-index AR-coating sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured total reflectance spectra for the bare silicon (top curve), the λ 4 (middle curve), and the graded-index (bottom curve) AR-coating samples, respectively. (b) The deduced total reflectance data (solid dots) from the top AR-coating surface only.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of total reflectance versus θ for the λ 4 and graded-index AR-coating samples at λ = 633 , 830, and 904 nm , respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured and calculated R angle - avg ( λ ) as a function of λ for TE polarization. The solar spectrum (thin curve) is shown as a reference. (b) R angle - avg ( λ ) for TM polarization.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 θ- and λ-Averaged Total Reflectance and Efficiency of AR Coating for Silicon, Single-Layer λ 4 Coating, and Graded-Index Coating Samples

Equations (1)

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R angle - avg ( λ ) = 8 60 R ( θ , λ ) d θ 8 60 d θ .

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