Abstract

High-index-contrast compact microdisk resonators in thermally evaporated As2S3 and Ge17Sb12S71 chalcogenide glass films are designed and fabricated using standard UV lithography and characterized. Our pulley coupler configuration demonstrates coupling of the resonators to monolithically integrated photonic wire waveguides without resorting to demanding fine-line lithography. Microdisk resonators in As2S3 support whispering-gallery-mode with cavity quality factors (Q) exceeding 2×105, the highest Q value reported in resonator structures in chalcogenide glasses to the best of our knowledge. We have successfully demonstrated a lab-on-a-chip prototype sensor device with the integration of our resonator with planar microfluidic systems. The sensor shows a refractive index sensitivity of 182nmRIU (refractive index unit) and a wavelength resolution of 0.1pm through a resonant peak fit. This corresponds to a refractive index detection limit of 8×107 RIU at 1550nm in wavelength, which could be further improved by shifting the operating wavelength to a region where water absorption is reduced.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Greer and N. Mathur, Nature 437, 1246 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Chao and L. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Feng, G. Zhou, C. Xu, and W. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Glaser, Anal. Biochem. 213, 152 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adamietz, F.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Almeida, V.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, K.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
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A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chao, C.

C. Chao and L. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, G.

Fan, X.

Feng, N.

Flagan, R.

A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S.

A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frye-Mason, G.

Glaser, R.

R. Glaser, Anal. Biochem. 213, 152 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greer, A.

A. Greer and N. Mathur, Nature 437, 1246 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L.

C. Chao and L. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D.

Hu, J.

Huang, W.

N. Feng, G. Zhou, C. Xu, and W. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W.

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jain, H.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Kulkarni, R.

A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, N.

A. Greer and N. Mathur, Nature 437, 1246 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G.

Myneni, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, L.

Pollack, J.

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pope, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seal, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S.

Sun, X.

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. Kimerling, “Detection limit of optical resonator biochemical sensors” (submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B).

Sun, Y.

Tarasov, V.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, N.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J.

Xu, C.

Zhou, G.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

R. Glaser, Anal. Biochem. 213, 152 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Chao and L. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

N. Feng, G. Zhou, C. Xu, and W. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 16 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, Mater. Chem. Phys. 97, 64 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Greer and N. Mathur, Nature 437, 1246 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Almeida, C. Barrios, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

A. Armani, R. Kulkarni, S. Fraser, R. Flagan, and K. Vahala, Science 317, 7837 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. Kimerling, “Detection limit of optical resonator biochemical sensors” (submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. B).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of a 20 μ m radius pulley-type As 2 S 3 microdisk resonator; the gap separating the bus waveguide and the disk is 800 nm wide. (b) Simulated TE mode external Q factor and corresponding coupled Q factor at critical coupling at a wavelength of 1550 nm as a function of the gap width between the microdisk and a bus waveguide. In this simulation, the Ge 17 Sb 12 S 71 (RI 2.06) microdisk sits on an oxide (RI 1.45) under cladding and is immersed in water (RI 1.33). The disk has a radius of 20 μ m , and both the bus waveguide and the disk have a height of 450 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured transmission spectra of a 20 μ m radius microdisk resonator. (b) TM polarization transmission spectrum averaged over 32 wavelength-sweeping scans near a resonant peak. The black dots are experimental data points, and the curve is the Lorentzian peak fitted in linear scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) TM polarization transmission spectra of a Ge 17 Sb 12 S 71 microdisk in IPA solutions with four different concentrations. (b) Measured resonant peak wavelength shift as a function of IPA solution mole ratio concentration and corresponding solution refractive index.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coupled Cavity Q and Free Spectral Range (FSR) of As 2 S 3 and Ge 17 Sb 12 S 71 Microdisk Resonators with a 20 μ m Radius Measured at Critical Coupling (Quoted for Resonant Peaks with Extinction Ratios > 15 dB ) Near 1550 nm in Wavelength

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