Abstract

We describe a subdiffraction-resolution far-field fluorescence microscope employing stimulated emission depletion (STED) with a light source consisting of a microchip laser coupled into a standard single-mode fiber, which, via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), yields a comb-like spectrum of seven discrete peaks extending from the fundamental wavelength at 532nmto620nm. Each of the spectral peaks can be used as STED light for overcoming the diffraction barrier. This SRS light source enables the simple implementation of multicolor STED and provides a spectral output with multiple available wavelengths from green to red with potential for further expansion.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 16, 9614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994

1988

1982

G. Rosman, Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. H. Stolen, A. R. Tynes, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

Andrei, M. A.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanca, C. M.

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donnert, G.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyba, M.

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eggeling, C.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Gao, P. J.

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Harke, B.

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 16, 9614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, Opt. Lett. 19, 780 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen, A. R. Tynes, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, R.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamin, D.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kastrup, L.

D. Wildanger, E. Rittweger, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Opt. Express 16, 9614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, J.

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauterbach, M. A.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lührmann, R.

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medda, R.

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, C. J.

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Poyntzwright, L. J.

Rittweger, E.

Rizzoli, S. O.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosman, G.

G. Rosman, Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, A. R. Tynes, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. Z.

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, A. R.

R. H. Stolen, A. R. Tynes, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ullal, C. K.

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wildanger, D.

Willig, K. I.

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. L.

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.

P. J. Gao, C. J. Nie, T. L. Yang, and H. Z. Su, Appl. Phys. 24, 303 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Stolen, A. R. Tynes, and E. P. Ippen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62 (1972).
[CrossRef]

V. Westphal, C. M. Blanca, M. Dyba, L. Kastrup, and S. W. Hell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3125 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

B. Harke, C. K. Ullal, J. Keller, and S. W. Hell, Nano Lett. 8, 1309 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

K. I. Willig, B. Harke, R. Medda, and S. W. Hell, Nat. Med. 4, 915 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

G. Rosman, Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

G. Donnert, J. Keller, R. Medda, M. A. Andrei, S. O. Rizzoli, R. Lührmann, R. Jahn, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, Science 320, 246 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2007).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simplified schematic of the experimental setup. (b) Output spectrum from the SRS fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left, STED measurements, with corresponding confocal measurements of the same site in the sample center; right, line-profile measurements, at sites indicated by arrows. Scale bars are 500 nm . Excitation and STED wavelengths are indicated. Measurement times were between 10 and 20 min, depending on pixel size and dwell time. (a) 20 30 nm silica beads labeled with Atto 425. (b) and (c) 40 nm yellow–green beads. (d) 20 nm yellow–green beads. (e) Neurofilaments labeled with Atto 532.

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