Abstract

A high-speed (47,000A- scanss), ultrahigh axial resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for retinal imaging at 1060nm, based on a 1024  pixel linear array, 47kHz readout rate InGaAs camera is presented. When interfaced with a custom superluminescent diode (λc=1020nm, Δλ=108nm, Pout=9mW), the system provides 3.3μm axial OCT resolution at the surface of biological tissue, 4.5μm in vivo in rat retina, 5.7μm in vivo in human retina, and 110dB sensitivity for 870μW incident power and 21μs integration time. Retinal tomograms acquired in vivo from a human volunteer and a rat animal model show clear visualization of all intraretinal layer and increased penetration into the choroid.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 32, 2049 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Puvanathasan and K. Bizheva, Opt. Express 15, 15747 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Lee, J. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, Opt. Express 14, 4403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, Opt. Lett. 31, 2308 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

1984

1968

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. Wadsworth, J. Knight, and P. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

Blinder, S.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

de Boer, J.

Drexler, W.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. Wadsworth, J. Knight, and P. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

Falkner-Radler, C.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

George, J. S.

Glittenberg, C.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. Wadsworth, J. Knight, and P. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofer, B.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Huber, R.

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W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J.

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Lee, E.

Lim, H.

Mei, M.

Morgan, J. E.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Perry, B.

Pflug, R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollack, J.

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Puvanathasan, P.

Qiu, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Satmann, H.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

Schubert, C.

Srinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Taylor, J. R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. Chavez-Pirson, and W. Drexler, Opt. Express 13, 3252 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. Wadsworth, J. Knight, and P. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 1980 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W.

Warren, S. G.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamauchi, A.

Yao, X.

Yun, S. H.

Zeiler, F.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Icarus

W. Irvine and J. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Hofer, H. Satmann, F. Zeiler, J. E. Morgan, C. Falkner-Radler, C. Glittenberg, S. Blinder, and W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 5066 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ultrahigh-resolution FD-OCT system: CL, collimating lenses; DC, dispersion compensation unit; NDF, neutral-density filters; FOI, fiber-optic isolator; M, mirror; PC, polarization controllers; SLD, superluminescent diode; TS, translation stage. The spectrometer consists of a collimating lens (CL), a volumetric diffraction grating (DG), a focusing lens (FL), and a high-speed InGaAs CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SLD spectrum measured with the spectrometer directly at the source (dashed curve) and at the detector end of the FD-OCT system (solid curve) (a). FD-OCT axial point-spread function measured from an Ag mirror (b). Simulation of the effect of water absorption (pale gray curve) on the SLD spectral shape, central wavelength, and OCT axial resolution, Δ z , as a function of the thickness d of the water layer (c). Sensitivity of the FD-OCT system, measured as a function of the optical path difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative ultrahigh-resolution FD-OCT images of human [(a), (b)] and rat (c) retina, acquired in vivo at a rate of 47,000 A - scans s . The size of the tomograms is 2000 × 512 (A-scans × pixels) for the human and 1000 × 512 for the rat retina.

Equations (1)

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I ( λ ) = I 0 ( λ ) exp ( 2 μ a ( λ ) d )

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