Abstract

A hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fiber is fabricated from polycarbonate material and guidance by inhibited coupling in a two-layer structure is demonstrated in two strong transmission bands with minimum losses of 9.0dBm at 800nm and 3.1dBm at 1550nm. The latter corresponds to a loss well below the polycarbonate material loss at this wavelength, and to our knowledge it is the lowest loss hollow-core polymer fiber reported to date. The short-term operational temperature limit of the fiber is shown to be 135°C, significantly higher than that of conventional polymer optical fibers made of other polymers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
  2. A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).
  3. W. Daum and W. Czepluch, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference (Information Gatekeepers, Inc., 2003), pp. 6-9.
  4. T. Yamashita and K. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 2681 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, and N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, M. C. De Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, Opt. Express 9, 319 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, Opt. Lett. 31, 172 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Argyros and J. Pla, Opt. Express 15, 7713 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Pla, and A. Docherty, Opt. Express 16, 5642 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 13, 236 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, Opt. Lett. 31, 3574 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 15, 12680 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. It was not possible to use fiber lengths longer than 140 cm owing to localized defects in the fiber structure at random intervals along the fiber.
  16. T. B. Gorczyca and M.-Y. Shih, Proc. SPIE 5179, 97 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. Argyros and J. Pla, Opt. Express 15, 7713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Pearce, G. S. Wiederhecker, C. G. Poulton, S. Burger, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 15, 12680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2003

T. B. Gorczyca and M.-Y. Shih, Proc. SPIE 5179, 97 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Yamashita and K. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Argyros, A.

Bachmann, A.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G. W.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.

Bassett, I. M.

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, Opt. Lett. 31, 3574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Burger, S.

Chuyanov, V.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Czepluch, W.

W. Daum and W. Czepluch, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference (Information Gatekeepers, Inc., 2003), pp. 6-9.

Dalton, L. R.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daum, W.

W. Daum and W. Czepluch, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference (Information Gatekeepers, Inc., 2003), pp. 6-9.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

De Sterke, M. C.

Docherty, A.

Erlig, H.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Fetterman, H. R.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, S.

Gan, J.

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorczyca, T. B.

T. B. Gorczyca and M.-Y. Shih, Proc. SPIE 5179, 97 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, L.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, D.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Issa, N. A.

Kamada, K.

T. Yamashita and K. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Klein, K.-F.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Krauser, J.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Large, M. C. J.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, Opt. Lett. 31, 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, and N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, M. C. De Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, Opt. Express 9, 319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Law, S. H.

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Light, P. S.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, Opt. Lett. 31, 3574 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lwin, R.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Manos, S.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, and N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, M. C. De Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, Opt. Express 9, 319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, M. W.

McPhedran, R. C.

Nicorovici, N. A. P.

Oh, M.-C.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

Pla, J.

Poisel, H.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Raymer, M. G.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Sawada, H.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Shih, M.-Y.

T. B. Gorczyca and M.-Y. Shih, Proc. SPIE 5179, 97 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takoshima, T.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Tanaka, A.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Tomlinson, A.

Tsap, B.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, and I. M. Bassett, Opt. Lett. 31, 172 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, and N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, M. C. De Sterke, and N. A. P. Nicorovici, Opt. Express 9, 319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, N.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Wiederhecker, G. S.

Williams, D. P.

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita and K. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

Zamzow, P. E.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Zhang, C.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziemann, O.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, A. Szep, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, B. Tsap, and H. R. Fetterman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3525 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Lwin, G. W. Barton, L. Harvey, J. Harvey, D. Hirst, S. Manos, M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, A. Bachmann, H. Poisel, and K.-F. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

A. Tanaka, H. Sawada, T. Takoshima, and N. Wakatsuki, Fiber Integr. Opt. 7, 139 (1987).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

T. Yamashita and K. Kamada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 32, 2681 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. H. Law, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. W. Barton, C. Yan, R. Lwin, and J. Gan, Opt. Commun. 265, 513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

T. B. Gorczyca and M.-Y. Shih, Proc. SPIE 5179, 97 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, Science 318, 1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

It was not possible to use fiber lengths longer than 140 cm owing to localized defects in the fiber structure at random intervals along the fiber.

O. Ziemann, J. Krauser, P. E. Zamzow, and W. Daum, POF--Polymer Optical Fibers for Data Communication (Springer-Verlag, 2008).

M. C. J. Large, L. Poladian, G. W. Barton, and M. A. van Eijkelenborg, Microstructured Polymer Optical fibers (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Daum and W. Czepluch, in Proceedings of the Polymer Optical Fiber Conference (Information Gatekeepers, Inc., 2003), pp. 6-9.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the polycarbonate HC-mPOF with an outer diameter of 400 μ m and a core diameter of 61 μ m . (b) Colored transmission (yellow online) was observed through the core of the fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of polycarbonate HC-mPOFs of 386 μ m (dashed curve) and 400 μ m outer diameter (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cut-back loss measurement of polycarbonate HC-mPOF. The line at 3.1 dB m indicates the lowest-loss measurement in the NIR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured change in transmission loss as a function of temperature.

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