Abstract

Dark-spot formation is demonstrated by calculating electric-field distribution near the focus produced by focusing higher-order transverse-mode vector beams with radial and azimuthal polarizations in addition to Laguerre–Gaussian beams with linear and circular polarizations. The size of the dark spot in the radial direction varies from one beam to another, but the size in the axial direction is almost the same. The radially polarized TM02 -mode beam is predicted to form a dark spot solely by an axial electric field.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Fatemi and M. Bashkansky, Appl. Opt. 46, 7573 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Crosjean and D. Courjon, Opt. Commun. 272, 314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Opt. Commun. 279, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1987

Aburdene, M. F.

Arlt, J.

Bashkansky, M.

Bokor, N.

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Opt. Commun. 279, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Carter, W. H.

Courjon, D.

T. Crosjean and D. Courjon, Opt. Commun. 272, 314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crosjean, T.

T. Crosjean and D. Courjon, Opt. Commun. 272, 314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daigoku, K.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Opt. Commun. 279, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaplan, N. Friedman, and N. Davidson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fatemi, F. K.

Friedman, N.

Fujii, M.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

Helseth, L. E.

L. E. Helseth, Opt. Commun. 257, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iketaki, Y.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishiuchi, S.

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A.

Kawakami, S.

Kawauchi, H.

Keller, J.

Kozawa, Y.

H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Opt. Lett. 33, 399 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, Opt. Lett. 31, 820 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sato (Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan) and Y. Kozawa are preparing a manuscript to be called “Hollow vortex beams.”

Padgett, M. J.

Rao, L.

L. Rao, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and P. Yei, Opt. Commun. 281, 1358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

H. Kawauchi, Y. Kozawa, S. Sato, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, Opt. Lett. 33, 399 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kozawa and S. Sato, Opt. Lett. 31, 820 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sato (Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan) and Y. Kozawa are preparing a manuscript to be called “Hollow vortex beams.”

Sato, T.

Schönle, A.

Wang, Z.

L. Rao, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and P. Yei, Opt. Commun. 281, 1358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yei, P.

L. Rao, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and P. Yei, Opt. Commun. 281, 1358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

Zheng, X.

L. Rao, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and P. Yei, Opt. Commun. 281, 1358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

L. Rao, X. Zheng, Z. Wang, and P. Yei, Opt. Commun. 281, 1358 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Helseth, Opt. Commun. 257, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Crosjean and D. Courjon, Opt. Commun. 272, 314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor, Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, K. Daigoku, N. Davidson, and M. Fujii, Opt. Commun. 272, 263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Opt. Commun. 279, 229 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. Iketaki, T. Watanabe, M. Sakai, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii, and T. Watanabe, Opt. Eng. 44, 033602-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Sato (Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan) and Y. Kozawa are preparing a manuscript to be called “Hollow vortex beams.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated intensity distributions near the focus in the x–z plane for vector beams and Laguerre–Gaussian beams with linear and circular polarizations for (a) a radially polarized beam ( TM 02 ) ; (b) a radially polarized vector beam (v- TM 02 ); (c) an azimuthally polarized vector beam (v- TE 02 ); (d) and (e) LG 11 -mode beams with left-handed circular and linear polarizations, respectively; and (f) and (g) LG 10 -mode beams with circular and linear polarizations, respectively. Vertical and horizontal axes are in the x and z directions in units of wavelength, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated intensity distributions near the focus for (a) a circularly polarized LG 10 mode, (b) radially polarized ( TM 02 mode), and (c) radially polarized vortex (v- TM 02 mode) beams. In the left-hand-side column, the total intensity distributions are shown. From the second to the last columns, the intensity distributions of the x, y, and z components are shown. The vertical and horizontal axes are in the x and z directions in units of wavelength, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical intensity profiles near the focus calculated for several beams in (a) the x direction and (b) the z direction. Legends are denoted in the right-hand side of each graph. x, y and z in parenthesis in each legend indicate the electric component. Keep in mind that the dashed curve and the dashed-dotted curve are used for different electric components between (a) and (b).

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