Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge the observation of near-IR multiple higher-order stopgaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated using the direct-laser-writing method in thick chalcogenide glass films is reported. The fabrication and etching conditions necessary to realize well-defined structures are presented. The fabricated PhCs exhibit higher-order stopgaps, which are only evident in high-quality structures. The higher-order stopgaps observed permit these high-refractive-index and high-nonlinear PhCs to be used directly as functional photonic devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths without further miniaturizing structural dimensions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Arsh, A.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feigel, A.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galstain, T.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

M. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, V.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

John, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Juarez, B. H.

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klebanov, M.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotler, Z.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyubin, V.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Meneghini, C.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Willard, F.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, S.

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Dehesa, J.

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sfeza, B.

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub and M. Gu, Opt. Lett. 27, 1824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcotte, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M.

M. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Wong, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Perez-Willard, S. John, and G. A. Ozin, Adv. Mater. 18, 265 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Juarez, S. Rubio, J. Sanchez-Dehesa, and C. Lopez, Adv. Mater. 14, 1486 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ventura and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 20, 1329 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Serbin and M. Gu, Adv. Mater. 18, 221 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Feigel, Z. Kotler, B. Sfeza, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Chem. (1)

B. Jia, J. Li, and M. Gu, Aust. J. Chem. 60, 484 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstain, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, Science 289, 604 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental plot of the lateral rod dimension versus the laser power. The right panel shows an SEM image of the 2D rods fabricated at different powers (from 1.6 to 8.9 μ W ). Scale bar, 5 μ m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of As 2 S 3 woodpile structures. (a) and (b) Top views. (c) and (d) Side views.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, calculated band structure of a 3D woodpile PhC predicating the presence of both the first- and the second-order stopgaps. Right, measured transmission and reflection spectra of the 3D woodpile PhC matching exactly the calculation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra of 3D woodpile PhCs with the same in-plane spacing d x = 1 μ m and interlayer spacing d z = 0.96 μ m but different fabrication powers: (i) 4.0, (ii) 4.8, (iii) 5.6, (iv) 6.4, (v) 7.2 μ W . Stopgap position of both the first- and the second-order stopgaps versus the (b) fabrication power and (c) layer spacing d z .

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