Abstract

We demonstrate a broadband, thin-film, polarizing beam splitter based on an anisotropic diffraction grating composed of reactive mesogens (polymerizable liquid crystals). This achromatic polarization grating (PG) manifests high diffraction efficiency (100%) and high extinction ratio (1000:1) in both theory and experiment. We show an operational bandwidth Δλλ056% (roughly spanning visible wavelength range) that represents more than a fourfold increase of bandwidth over conventional PGs (and significantly larger than any other grating). The diffraction angle and operational region (visible, near-infrared, midwave infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths) may be easily tailored during fabrication. The essence of the achromatic design is a stack of two chiral PGs with an opposite twist sense and employs the principle of retardation compensation. We fully characterize its optical properties and derive the theoretical diffraction behavior.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Chulwoo Oh and Michael J. Escuti, "Achromatic diffraction from polarization gratings with high efficiency: erratum," Opt. Lett. 34, 3637-3637 (2009)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-34-23-3637

References

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  1. L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Lett. 25, 785 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).
  4. C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 31, 2248 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Lajunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, Opt. Lett. 29, 803 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. J. Broer, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 190, 2255 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Kelly, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2047 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. van Heesch, Ph.D. dissertation (Eindhoven University of Technology, 2007).
  13. C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Proc. SPIE 6682, 668211 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).
  15. T. Scheffer and J. Nehring, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 555 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Proc. SPIE 6682, 668211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Sarkissian, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. B. Glebov, V. Rotar, and B. Y. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 31, 2248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Lajunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, Opt. Lett. 29, 803 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Scheffer and J. Nehring, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. M. Kelly, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2047 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. J. Broer, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 190, 2255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

Broer, D. J.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

D. J. Broer, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 190, 2255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eakin, J. N.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Proc. SPIE 6682, 668211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

Glebov, L. B.

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Jones, W. M.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

S. M. Kelly, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2047 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Komanduri, R. K.

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lajunen, H.

Nehring, J.

T. Scheffer and J. Nehring, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C.

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Proc. SPIE 6682, 668211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pelcovits, R. A.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, C.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, M. D.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rotar, V.

Sanchez, C.

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

Sarkissian, H.

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scheffer, T.

T. Scheffer and J. Nehring, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tervo, J.

Todorov, T.

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

van Heesch, C.

C. van Heesch, Ph.D. dissertation (Eindhoven University of Technology, 2007).

Xie, Y.

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

Zeldovich, B. Y.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Scheffer and J. Nehring, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 555 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. N. Eakin, Y. Xie, R. A. Pelcovits, M. D. Radcliffe, and G. P. Crawford, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1671 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. M. Kelly, J. Mater. Chem. 5, 2047 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

R. K. Komanduri, W. M. Jones, C. Oh, and M. J. Escuti, J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15, 589 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. J. Broer, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 190, 2255 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, Nature 381, 123102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, Opt. Acta 31, 579 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043815 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. J. Escuti, C. Oh, C. Sanchez, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, Proc. SPIE 6302, 632614 (2006).

C. Oh and M. J. Escuti, Proc. SPIE 6682, 668211 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

C. van Heesch, Ph.D. dissertation (Eindhoven University of Technology, 2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Achromatic PG. Nematic director profile (a) plan view and (b) side view. (c) Diffraction geometry (note only the m = ± 1 orders emerge).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical diffraction of the achromatic PG. (a) First-order efficiency spectra versus twist angle Φ ( Σ η ± 1 99 % , outlined region). (b) First-order efficiency spectrum for Φ = 70 ° compared with the circular PG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of achromatic PG diffraction. Unpolarized white LED light as seen from (a) plan view (intersecting a white card) and (b) projected screen view. (c) Linearly polarized laser light ( Λ = 6.5 μ m ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured diffraction of the achromatic PG. (a) Efficiencies with circularly polarized incident laser light [same wavelengths as in Fig. 3c]. (b) Polarization sensitivity of the m = + 1 order with a rotating quarter-wave plate. (c) First-order efficiency spectrum from spectrometer (curves) and laser (diamonds) measurements.

Equations (4)

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n ( x , z ) = [ cos ϕ ( x , z ) , sin ϕ ( x , z ) , 0 ] ,
ϕ ( x , z ) = { π x Λ + Φ z d if 0 z d π x Λ Φ z d + 2 Φ if d < z 2 d } ,
η 0 = [ cos 2 X + ( Φ 2 Γ 2 ) sinc 2 X ] 2 ,
η ± 1 = A 2 ( 1 S 3 2 ) ( cos 2 X + Φ 2 sinc 2 X ) ,

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