Abstract

A high-resolution Stokes vector imaging polarimeter was developed to measure the polarization properties at the cellular level in living human eyes. The application of this cellular level polarimetric technique to in vivo retinal imaging has allowed us to measure depolarization in the retina and to improve the retinal image contrast of retinal structures based on their polarization properties.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (3)

2005 (3)

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, and Y. G. Ushenko, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Cense, H. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, Q. Y. J. Smithwick, and A. E. Elsner, Opt. Express 12, 5178 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2000 (1)

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, Clin. Vision Sci. 7, 481 (1992).

1986 (1)

G. J. V. Blokland and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. S. Greenfield, R. W. Knighton, and X. R. Huang, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 129, 715 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Clin. Vision Sci. (1)

A. W. Dreher and K. Reiter, Clin. Vision Sci. 7, 481 (1992).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4061 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, 1099 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. Cense, H. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

O. V. Angelsky, A. G. Ushenko, and Y. G. Ushenko, Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4811 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, Proc. SPIE 5688A, 145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

G. J. V. Blokland and D. V. Norren, Vision Res. 26, 485 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light: Production and Use (Harvard U. Press, 1962).

R. A. Chipman, in Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 22.21-22.37.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Systematic variation of the intensities of cone photoreceptors and area around cone photoreceptors from one subject at 6° of the nasal retina with respect to the orientation of the quarter-wave plate. Error bars are the standard deviation across locations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stokes vector images at 6° on the nasal retina from the same subject as in Fig. 1. Top row, images formed by S 1 S 3 ; bottom row, intensity image ( S 0 ) , DOP image, and DODP image. Scale bar is 50 μ m . The gray-level code is shown at the right side.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top row, Stokes vector images ( S 1 S 3 ) ; bottom row, intensity images for all light S 0 (left), all polarized light S 0 DOP * (middle), and all depolarized light S 0 DODP * (right). Scale bar is 50 μ m . The gray-level code is shown at the right side on the top row and shown separately on the bottom row. Images are at 7° of the nasal retina from the same subject as Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stokes vector images of the retina in a region with both the shadow of a blood vessel and cone photoreceptors at 6° of the second subject’s nasal retina. Scale bar is 50 μ m . The gray-level code is shown at the right side.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I out = ( S 0 + S 1 cos 2 ( 2 θ ) + S 2 cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) S 3 sin ( 2 θ ) ) I in ,
Contrast = ( I center I adajecent ) ( I center + I adajecent ) ,

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