Abstract

We describe the fabrication of a Mach–Zehnder optical modulator in LiNbO3 by femtosecond laser micromachining, which is composed of optical waveguides inscripted by a femtosecond laser and embedded microelectrodes subsequently fabricated using femtosecond laser ablation and selective electroless plating. A half-wave voltage close to 19V is achieved at a wavelength of 632.8nm with an interaction length of 2.6mm. This simple and cost-effective technique opens up new opportunities for fabricating integrated electro-optic devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. N. Binh, J. Cryst. Growth 288, 180 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, Opt. Lett. 31, 2987 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. A. Shafeev, Quantum Electron. 27, 1104 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. D. Zeng, H. Y. Sun, J. Song, X. S. Wang, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Express 15, 12743 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Y. Sun, J. Song, X. S. Wang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 29, 2007 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Y. Sun, J. Song, X. S. Wang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. D. Zeng, H. Y. Sun, J. Song, X. S. Wang, Y. Cheng, Z. Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Express 15, 12743 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, Opt. Lett. 31, 2987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Binh, J. Cryst. Growth 288, 180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, Opt. Lett. 29, 2007 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

G. A. Shafeev, Quantum Electron. 27, 1104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ancona, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Binh, L. N.

L. N. Binh, J. Cryst. Growth 288, 180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulmer, C. H.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Chong, T. C.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Combemale, Y.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, H.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mathieu, X.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mcbrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nejadmalayeri, H.

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Reiber, L.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A. M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sejourne, B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shafeev, G. A.

G. A. Shafeev, Quantum Electron. 27, 1104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H. Y.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. S.

Werner, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, Z. Z.

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. D.

Zhang, Y. S.

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. A 86, 165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, Appl. Phys. A 81, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Y. Chen, X. F. Chen, Y. S. Zhang, and Y. X. Xia, Appl. Phys. B 89, 25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Y. Liao, J. Xu, H. Y. Sun, J. Song, X. S. Wang, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 7018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, C. H. Bulmer, and W. K. Burns, Electron. Lett. 28, 826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. Mcbrien, and D. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1337 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

L. N. Binh, J. Cryst. Growth 288, 180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Quantum Electron.

G. A. Shafeev, Quantum Electron. 27, 1104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the MZI EO modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microscope image of the end facet of the MZI; (b) near-field intensity distribution measured at the exit of the MZI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Top and (b) end views of optical micrographs of the embedded electrodes and optical waveguides; (c) contour plots of the equipotential contour of the embedded electrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field intensity distribution measured at the exit of the EO modulator at different dc voltages of (a) 0 V and (b) 19 V .

Equations (1)

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Γ = λ G 2 n e 3 γ 33 U π L ,

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