Abstract

We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

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2008 (1)

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Alexandrov and I. V. Chernyh, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 39, 2480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

M. Debenham, G. Dew, and D. E. Putland, Opt. Acta 26, 1487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrov, S.

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. A. Alexandrov and I. V. Chernyh, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 39, 2480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J.

Betzler, K.

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boehlau-Godau, M.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Brown, W. J.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chalut, K. J.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chernyh, I. V.

S. A. Alexandrov and I. V. Chernyh, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 39, 2480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D'Amico, T. A.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Debenham, M.

M. Debenham, G. Dew, and D. E. Putland, Opt. Acta 26, 1487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dew, G.

M. Debenham, G. Dew, and D. E. Putland, Opt. Acta 26, 1487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gangnus, S. V.

Gray, D. F.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Groene, A.

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Hillman, T.

Knuttel, A.

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matcher, S. J.

Obando, J. V.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Putland, D. E.

M. Debenham, G. Dew, and D. E. Putland, Opt. Acta 26, 1487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pyhtila, J. W.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, T. S.

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D.

Schmidt, N.

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Silva, K. K. M. B.

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Sporn, T. A.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Terry, N. G.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tomlins, P. H.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, T.

Ugryumova, N.

Voigt, P.

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D'Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. F. Gray, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Knuttel and M. Boehlau-Godau, J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

P. H. Tomlins and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. D 38, 2519 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. S. Ralston, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, Nat. Phys. 3, 129 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. Debenham, G. Dew, and D. E. Putland, Opt. Acta 26, 1487 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

S. A. Alexandrov and I. V. Chernyh, Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 39, 2480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Betzler, A. Groene, N. Schmidt, and P. Voigt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 652 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OCT images of a (a), (b) pure silica slide and (c), (d) resin composite slab at different angles of incidence; (a), (c) 0° (normal incidence); (b), (d) 30°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample optical thickness measured as a function of incident angle using low coherence interferometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical thickness of a highly scattering resin sample, measured as a function of incident angle using low coherence interferometry.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n m sin ( θ ) = n sin ( θ r ) ,
t = S n g d S .
t = n g d cos ( θ r ) ,
t ( θ ) = n g d [ 1 n m 2 n 2 sin 2 ( θ ) ] 1 2 .
n 2 = n m 2 [ t ( θ 1 ) 2 sin 2 ( θ 2 ) t ( θ 2 ) 2 sin 2 ( θ 1 ) 2 ] t ( θ 1 ) 2 t ( θ 2 ) 2 .
t ( θ ) = n g d { 1 n m 2 n 2 sin 2 [ arctan tan 2 ( θ + ϵ θ ) + tan 2 ( ϵ ϕ ) ] } 1 2 + ϵ t .

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