Abstract

A method is proposed for visualizing simply the concentrations of melanin, oxygenated blood, and deoxygenated blood in skin tissue using digital RGB images. The total blood concentration and oxygen saturation can also be reconstructed. Monte Carlo simulation of light transport specifies a relation between the chromophore concentrations and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage XYZ, which are compatible with the common RGB working space. Experiments with a tissuelike agar gel phantom demonstrated the possibility of the method. In vivo imaging of a human hand during forearm occlusion demonstrated the ability of the method to evaluate hemodynamics of skin tissue.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  7. D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).
  8. K. N. Plataniotis and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, Color Imaging Processing and Applications (Springer, 2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Nishidate, Y. Aizu, and H. Mishina, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).

2000 (1)

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2681, 468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizu, Y.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nishidate, Y. Aizu, and H. Mishina, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andermann, M. L.

Anderson, C.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Bamber, J. C.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Bargo, P. R.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blair, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bolay, H.

Crawford, D. C.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Dale, A. M.

Devor, A.

Dunn, A. K.

Glickman, R. D.

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2681, 468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodell, T. T.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henricson, J.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Hewko, M. D.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, Y.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2681, 468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajiyama, G.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koval, G.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurisu, S.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, M. J.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Maeda, T.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantsch, H. H.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, H.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, H.

I. Nishidate, Y. Aizu, and H. Mishina, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyake, Y.

D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).

Mortimer, P. S.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Moskowitz, M. A.

Nakagawa, K.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, D.

D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).

Niizeki, K.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, G. E.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Nishidate, I.

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nishidate, Y. Aizu, and H. Mishina, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Doherty, J.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Oshima, T.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ott, R. J.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Payette, J. R.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plataniotis, K. N.

K. N. Plataniotis and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, Color Imaging Processing and Applications (Springer, 2000).

Prahl, S. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, S.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J. A.

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2681, 468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sjoberg, F.

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

Sleven, R. A.

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsumura, N.

D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).

Ueda, T.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Venetsanopoulos, A. N.

K. N. Plataniotis and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, Color Imaging Processing and Applications (Springer, 2000).

Wallace, V. P.

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimizu, A.

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.-Q.

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. (1)

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L.-Q. Zheng, Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

Y. Higashi, S. Sasaki, K. Nakagawa, T. Ueda, A. Yoshimizu, S. Kurisu, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 35, 284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. G. Sowa, J. R. Payette, M. D. Hewko, and H. H. Mantsch, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Nishidate, Y. Aizu, and H. Mishina, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Bargo, S. A. Prahl, T. T. Goodell, R. A. Sleven, G. Koval, G. Blair, and S. L. Jacques, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 034018 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nishidate, T. Maeda, Y. Aizu, and K. Niizeki, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054006 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. (1)

V. P. Wallace, D. C. Crawford, P. S. Mortimer, R. J. Ott, and J. C. Bamber, Mead Johnson Symp. Perinat. Dev. Med. 45, 735 (2000).

Med. Imaging Technol. (1)

D. Nakao, N. Tsumura, and Y. Miyake, Med. Imaging Technol. 20, 123 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. L. Jacques, R. D. Glickman, and J. A. Schwartz, Proc. SPIE 2681, 468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. N. Plataniotis and A. N. Venetsanopoulos, Color Imaging Processing and Applications (Springer, 2000).

M. J. Leahy, J. O'Doherty, G. E. Nilsson, J. Henricson, C. Anderson, and F. Sjoberg, SPIE Newsroom 10.1117/2.1200701.0504 (2007), http://spie.org/x18138.xml.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical images of a, C c ; b, c o b ; c, C d b ; d, C t b ; and e, S O 2 . Comparison of the estimated and given values for f, C c ; g, C t b ; and h, S O 2 in the phantom experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In vivo results during upper-arm occlusion at 250 mm Hg . a, Typical images of a hand obtained from the method (from top to bottom; preprocess RGB image, C t b , S O 2 , and C m ) for different time points during the measurement. b, Time series of values averaged over ROIs (white squares) in a. c, Comparison of C t b for the back of hand and forearm volume change Δ V V measured by SPG during the measurement at 250 mm Hg ( n = 10 ) .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( R , G , B ) T = L 1 ( X , Y , Z ) T ,
O = I I 0 = [ 0 p e ( μ s , e , g e , l e ) exp ( μ a , m l e ) d l e ] [ 0 p d ( μ s , d , g d , l d ) exp ( ( μ a , o b + μ a , d b ) l d ) d l d ] ,

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