Abstract

Ultraviolet upconversion emissions of 246.2 and 252.8nm from DJ6 levels of Gd3+ ions were observed in GdF3: 10% Yb3+, 0.7% Tm3+ nanocrystals under 980nm excitation from a laser diode. The DJ6 levels of Gd3+ ions can be efficiently populated by energy transfer processes of YbTmGd and YbGd. A six-photon upconversion process was confirmed by the dependence of 252.8nm emission intensity on the pumping power. The upconversion mechanism in the six-photon process was discussed based on excited state absorption of Gd3+ ions, cross relaxation energy transfer between two excited Gd3+ ions, and energy transfer between Gd3+ and Yb3+ or Tm3+ ions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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