Abstract

We report what we believe to be the first demonstration of an all-semiconductor room-temperature terahertz time domain spectrometer. An optical Stark mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with 480fs pulses at 1044nm was used to illuminate low-temperature-grown photoconductive antennae with 5μm-gap bow-tie-shaped electrodes. The coherently detected spectrum has a bandwidth close to 1THz, in which water absorption lines at 0.555 and 0.751THz can be resolved.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Opt. 41, 2074 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, W. Hui, F. Rana, B. G. Hawkins, A. E. Smith, and B. J. Kirby, Opt. Express 16, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, Opt. Express 14, 430 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagel, P. H. Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, Appl. Opt. 41, 2074 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2709 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2709 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bolivar, P. H.

Bosserhoff, A.

Boucher, D.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brucherseifer, M.

Büttner, R.

Chen, W.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

Dobroiou, A.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dreyhaupt, A.

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

Erbert, G.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Evans, M. J.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Exter, M. V.

Fattinger, Ch.

Foreman, H. D.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

George, P. A.

Gregory, I. S.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hartnagel, H. L.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, B. G.

Hayashi, S.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

Hoogland, S.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2709 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, W.

Janke, C.

Kawase, K.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, B. J.

Klopp, P.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Koch, M.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, K.-S.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

Missous, M.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, T.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

Ogawa, Y.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quarterman, A. H.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

Rana, F.

Roberts, J. S.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rocquet, B.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, F.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saas, F.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Sagnes, I.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Girons, G.

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigmund, J.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. E.

Taday, P. F.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Theron, D.

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, A.

Tomm, J. W.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Tribe, W. R.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

Wilk, R.

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

Withers, M.

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2709 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, M.

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Cheng, S. Hayashi, A. Dobroiou, C. Otani, K. Kawase, T. Miyazawa, and Y. Ogawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 181104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, I. Sagnes, G. Saint-Girons, and J. S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3892 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Baker, I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, M. Withers, P. F. Taday, V. P. Wallace, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Missous, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1396 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, Chem. Rev. 104, 1759 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. G. Wilcox, F. Rutz, R. Wilk, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, J. Sigmund, H. L. Hartnagel, M. Koch, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 42, 1159 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Mouret, W. Chen, D. Boucher, B. Rocquet, P. Mounaix, D. Theron, and D. Lippens, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 17, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. B. Hu, X. C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2709 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Klopp, F. Saas, J. W. Tomm, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, G. Erbert, and M. Weyers, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper ME6.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, and A. C. Tropper, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThP3.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Diagram of the cavity of the VECSEL source. (b) Intensity autocorrelation of the optical pulse train of the VECSEL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) THz time domain trace. Arrows indicate the FFT window. (b) FFT of the time domain signal with arrows showing water absorption lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Comparison of the THz spectra obtained by the VECSEL and by the Nd:YLF laser at different pulse widths. (b) THz time domain traces.

Metrics