Abstract

A time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system without moving parts is described, which is based on multiheterodyning utilizing two mode-locked femtosecond lasers. By synchronizing the two lasers to slightly different repetition rates and coupling to an interferometric OCT setup, we obtain amplitude-modulated beat signals representing the structure of the specimen under investigation. Our system is suitable for biological imaging as well as technical applications. We demonstrate high axial imaging depths of 150mm with up to 5000 axial scans per second, achieving equivalent path scanning velocities of 750ms.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

2001 (1)

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Bajraszewski, T.

Bartels, A.

Bouma, B.

B. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).

Brehm, M.

Cense, B.

Cerna, R.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. M.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forst, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 31, 2975 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Z. Y.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinecke, D.

Hotate, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hudert, F.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Janke, M. Forst, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, and A. Bartels, Opt. Lett. 30, 1405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Keilmann, F.

Kistner, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourogi, M.

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kurokawa, T.

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Nagel, M.

Ohtsu, M.

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Schliesser, A.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shioda, T.

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tanaka, Y.

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

B. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).

Thoma, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Weide, D. W.

Werner, J. S.

Widiyatmoko, B.

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. M. Davis, M. A. Choma, and J. A. Izatt, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

S. Choi, T. Shioda, Y. Tanaka, and T. Kurokawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 6842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

S. J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L878 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Dekker, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the OCT system. PLL, phase-locked loop; PD, photodetector; BS, beam splitter; ND, neutral density filter; DC, dispersion compensation; BP, bandpass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Correlation signal for a sample arm reflector measured with 5 kHz and (b) demodulated A-scan of four coverslips (C1–C4) and a beamblock (B) measured with 1 kHz difference frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional OCT images. (a) Human nail fold in vivo ( 1.8 mm × 1.6 mm ) , (b) adhesive tape roll ( 3.3 mm × 10.5 mm ; inset, 0.5 mm × 1.4 mm width × height ).

Equations (1)

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f beat = ( n f rep 2 + δ 2 ) ( n f rep 1 + δ 1 ) = n Δ f + Δ δ ,

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