Abstract

Single-iteration multigrid (SIMG) wavefront reconstruction schemes were implemented and validated on the adaptive optics system at the Hale 5.1m telescope at the Palomar Observatory. Results indicate that even the simplest such method produces a performance indistinguishable from that of the standard least-squares reconstructor for both bright and dim guide stars. SIMG provides a dramatic reduction in computational cost when compared to vector–matrix multiplication and can be implemented in parallel, making it the obvious choice for reconstruction in future large-scale adaptive optics systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, and B. L. Ellerbroek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1817 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. A. Poyneer, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2100 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ren, R. Dekany, and M. Britton, Appl. Opt. 44, 2626 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and C. Vogel, in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA1.
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, and B. L. Ellerbroek, Appl. Opt. 45, 5281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

L. A. Poyneer, M. Troy, B. Macintosh, and D. Gavel, Opt. Lett. 28, 798 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blacken, C.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bloemhof, E. E.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouchez, A.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brack, G.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brack, G. L.

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandl, B.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

Britton, M.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, R. Dekany, and M. Britton, Appl. Opt. 44, 2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burruss, R. S.

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dekany, R.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, R. Dekany, and M. Britton, Appl. Opt. 44, 2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekany, R. G.

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F. G.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B.

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and C. Vogel, in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA1.
[PubMed]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

Gavel, D.

Gavel, D. T.

Gilles, L.

L. Gilles, C. R. Vogel, and B. L. Ellerbroek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1817 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and C. Vogel, in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA1.
[PubMed]

Gull, G. E.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J. W.

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

Hayward, T. L.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Houck, J. R.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kornilov, V.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lall, S.

Lessard, L.

Macintosh, B.

MacMartin, D. G.

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacMynowski, D.

Oppenheimer, B. R.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pirger, B.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Potanin, S.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Ren, H.

Roberts, J.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, B.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schoenwald, J.

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shatsky, N.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, J. C.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tokovinin, A.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, T.

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Poyneer, M. Troy, B. Macintosh, and D. Gavel, Opt. Lett. 28, 798 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Velur, V.

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C.

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and C. Vogel, in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA1.
[PubMed]

Vogel, C. R.

Voziakova, O.

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, M.

Yang, Q.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

V. Kornilov, A. Tokovinin, N. Shatsky, O. Voziakova, S. Potanin, and B. Safonov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. Dekany, A. Bouchez, M. Britton, V. Velur, M. Troy, J. C. Shelton, and J. Roberts, Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720G (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Shi, D. G. MacMartin, M. Troy, G. L. Brack, R. S. Burruss, and R. G. Dekany, Proc. SPIE 4839, 1035 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, R. G. Dekany, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, E. E. Bloemhof, T. Trinh, F. G. Dekens, F. Shi, T. L. Hayward, and B. Brandl, Proc. SPIE 4007, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

T. L. Hayward, B. Brandl, B. Pirger, C. Blacken, G. E. Gull, J. Schoenwald, and J. R. Houck, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 105 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Gilles, B. Ellerbroek, and C. Vogel, in Adaptive Optics: Analysis and Methods/Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging/Information Photonics/Signal Recovery and Synthesis Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuA1.
[PubMed]

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram representing the PALAO system. Solid lines indicate the optical path, while dashed lines indicate the signal path. Note that the fast-steering mirror mirror (FSM), deformable mirror (DM), and wavefront sensor (WFS) are represented as summation junctions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot comparing the Strehl ratio of various reconstructors on Stars 1, 2, and 3 (top, middle, and bottom, respectively). Each point represents a 10 s exposure image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MASS-DIMM seeing at 500 nm measured throughout the night.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot showing the mean performance of each reconstructor on Star 2. The error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval for the true mean. There is no statistically discernable difference in performance between the four reconstructors we tested. The two other stars have similar plots, but with higher variances.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System Parameters Used for Each Star a

Equations (2)

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y = G x + v ,
( G T G + ϵ I ) x ̂ = ( G T y ) .

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