Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of writing a long-period fiber grating in a single-mode fiber by CO2 laser pulses increases significantly with the axial stress applied along the fiber. We attribute the enhancement in writing efficiency to the generation of nonuniform inelastic frozen-in strains across the fiber under tension by CO2 laser heating. Controlling the axial stress distribution along a fiber during the CO2 laser writing process thus provides an additional degree of freedom for control of the grating characteristics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), page 128.
    [PubMed]
  3. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  9. C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. H. Kim, Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, Opt. Lett. 26, 1657 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. D. Yablon, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. H. Kim, T. J. Ahn, D. Y. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, Appl. Opt. 41, 3809 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, Opt. Express 15, 17645 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, T. J.

Anemogiannis, E.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braiwish, M. I.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, Opt. Express 15, 17645 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), page 128.
[PubMed]

Chung, Y.

Dachevski, A. I.

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DiMarcello, F. V.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, B. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grellier, A. J. C.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, W. T.

Han, Y.

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C. S.

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, H. W.

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), page 128.
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, Opt. Express 15, 17645 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monberg, E. M.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Montarou, C. C.

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Pannell, C. N.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, R. J.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Reed, W. A.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Wisk, P.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zayer, N. K.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, R. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, Opt. Express 15, 17645 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, and M. E. Lines, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Electron. Lett. 34, 302 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. D. Yablon, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, and K. S. Chiang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, Opt. Commun. 152, 324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, Opt. Commun. 185, 337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Montarou, T. K. Gaylord, and A. I. Dachevski, Opt. Commun. 265, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, and Y. J. Rao, “Glass structure changes in CO2 laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

K. S. Chiang and Q. Liu, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), page 128.
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the grating contrast on the C O 2 laser energy density for LPFGs written in (a) SMF- 130 V and (b) SMF-28e fibers subject to different applied weights using one scanning cycle of C O 2 laser irradiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of two LPFGs written in SMF-28e fibers using (a) a 10 g applied weight and three scanning cycles of C O 2 laser irradiation at an energy density of 6.0 J mm 2 and (b) a 300 g applied weight and four scanning cycles of C O 2 laser irradiation at an energy density of 3.0 J mm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LPFG written in an axially stressed SMF-28e fiber curved naturally with the exposed side of the fiber bending outward when the weight applied to the fiber was removed and the fiber was set free.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The grating written in an unstressed SMF- 130 V fiber using three scanning cycles of C O 2 laser irradiation at an energy density of 6.0 J mm 2 shows no visible deformation, while (b) the grating written in a stressed ( 250 g ) fiber of the same kind using the same writing conditions shows clear indentations.

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