Abstract

We present the design, fabrication, and measurement of an ultracompact directional coupler in InPInGaAsPInP. By utilizing the lag effect in the dry etching process, in one etch step, deeply etched asymmetric waveguides with a shallow groove in between are fabricated. This special property enhances the coupling efficiency for the directional coupler and thus makes the device ultracompact. We demonstrate directional couplers as short as 55μm, which is only 130th the length of the conventional design.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujisawa and M. Koshiba, Opt. Lett. 31, 56 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Gottscho, C. W. Jurgensen, and D. J. Vitkavage, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouchoule, S.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G. B.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chabert, P.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandouineau, J. P.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corr, C. S.

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duan, G. H.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

Fabre, S.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, T.

Gao, F.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gatilova, L.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gottscho, R.

R. Gottscho, C. W. Jurgensen, and D. J. Vitkavage, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guilet, S.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, S.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, H.

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

Jany, C.

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. L.

Jurgensen, C. W.

R. Gottscho, C. W. Jurgensen, and D. J. Vitkavage, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keil, D.

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Largeau, L.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Legouezigou, L.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Liang, B. M.

Liu, G. J.

Liu, J.

Lombardet, B.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patriarche, G.

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, F.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robin, F.

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

Sainson, S.

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, P.

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vitkavage, D. J.

R. Gottscho, C. W. Jurgensen, and D. J. Vitkavage, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, R.

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 100 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1671 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Pommereau, L. Legouezigou, S. Hubert, S. Sainson, J. P. Chandouineau, S. Fabre, G. H. Duan, B. Lombardet, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdre, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2242 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (5)

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2381 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Keil and E. Anderson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Gottscho, C. W. Jurgensen, and D. J. Vitkavage, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2133 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, S. Anand, A. Talneau, R. Ferrini, and R. Houdré, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bouchoule, G. Patriarche, S. Guilet, L. Gatilova, L. Largeau, and P. Chabert, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 666 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

P. Strasser, R. Wuest, F. Robin, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, Proceedings of the International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, 16th IPRM (IEEE, 2004), p. 175.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron micrograph showing the cross section of the etched trenches; (b) variation of the etch depth with the trench width (lag effect). The etch depths were normalized to 2.2 μ m , the etch depth of the 5 μ m wide trench. The data point and the corresponding trench is indicated by the label t 1 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Variation of the coupling length with the etch depth of the groove. FD simulated mode distribution for the directional coupler with (b) a deeply etched groove and (c) a shallowly etched groove.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures of the directional coupler: (a) top view, (b) scaled DC coupling region, and (c) cross section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IR camera images from the output facet of the fabricated directional couplers for a directional coupler with (a) L = 30 μ m (nearly 3 dB directional coupler) and (b) L = 60 μ m (nearly cross state).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured transmitted power from two output ports as a function of the length of the coupling region L.

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